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  • Author: Alexander N Comninos x
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Edouard G A Mills, Waljit S Dhillo and Alexander N Comninos

Reproduction is fundamental for the survival of all species and requires meticulous synchronisation of a diverse complement of neural, endocrine and related behaviours. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/Kiss1 gene) is now a well-established orchestrator of reproductive hormones, acting upstream of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the apex of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis. Beyond the hypothalamus, kisspeptin is also expressed in limbic and paralimbic brain regions, which are areas of the neurobiological network implicated in sexual and emotional behaviours. We are now forming a more comprehensive appreciation of extra-hypothalamic kisspeptin signalling and the complex role of kisspeptin as an upstream mediator of reproductive behaviours, including olfactory-driven partner preference, copulatory behaviour, audition, mood and emotion. An increasing body of research from zebrafish to humans has implicated kisspeptin in the integration of reproductive hormones with an overall positive influence on these reproductive behaviours. In this review, we critically appraise the current literature regarding kisspeptin and its control of reproductive behaviour. Collectively, these data significantly enhance our understanding of the integration of reproductive hormones and behaviour and provide the foundation for kisspeptin-based therapies to treat related disorders of body and mind.