Thyroid hormones (TH) are crucial for development, growth, differentiation, metabolism and thermogenesis. Skeletal muscle (SM) contractile function, myogenesis and bioenergetic metabolism are influenced by TH. These effects depend on the presence of the TH transporters MCT8 and MCT10 in the plasma membrane, the expression of TH receptors (THRA or THRB) and hormone availability, which is determined either by the activation of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinases (D2) or by the inactivation of T4 into reverse T3 by deiodinases type 3 (D3). SM relaxation and contraction rates depend on T3 regulation of myosin expression and energy supplied by substrate oxidation in the mitochondria. The balance between D2 and D3 expression determines TH intracellular levels and thus influences the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, indicating an important role of TH in muscle repair and myogenesis. During critical illness, changes in TH levels and in THR and deiodinase expression negatively affect SM function and repair. This review will discuss the influence of TH action on SM contraction, bioenergetics metabolism, myogenesis and repair in health and illness conditions.
Flavia F Bloise, Aline Cordeiro and Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho
Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes Souza, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura
Thyroid hormones are important modulators of lipid metabolism because the liver is a primary hormonal target. The hypolipidaemic effects of thyroid hormones result from the balance between direct and indirect actions resulting in stimulation of lipid synthesis and lipid oxidation, which favours degradation pathways. Originally, it was believed that thyroid hormone activity was only transduced by alteration of gene transcription mediated by the nuclear receptor thyroid hormone receptors, comprising the classic action of thyroid hormone. However, the discovery of other effects independent of this classic mechanism characterised a new model of thyroid hormone action, the non-classic mechanism that involves other signalling pathways. To date, this mechanism and its relevance have been intensively described. Considering the increasing evidence for non-classic signalling of thyroid hormones and the major influence of these hormones in the regulation of lipid metabolism, we reviewed the role of thyroid hormone in cytosolic signalling cascades, focusing on the regulation of second messengers, and the activity of effector proteins and the implication of these mechanisms on the control of hepatic lipid metabolism.
Luana Lopes Souza, Aline Cordeiro, Lorraine Soares Oliveira, Gabriela Silva Monteiro de Paula, Larissa Costa Faustino, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, Karen Jesus Oliveira and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil (FO) exert important lipid-lowering effects, an effect also ascribed to thyroid hormones (TH) and TH receptor β1 (TRβ1)-specific agonists. n-3 PUFA effects are mediated by nuclear receptors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and others. In this study, we investigated a role for TH signaling in n-3 PUFA effects. Euthyroid and hypothyroid adult rats (methimazole-treated for 5 weeks) received FO or soybean oil (control) by oral administration for 3 weeks. In euthyroid rats, FO treatment reduced serum triglycerides and cholesterol, diminished body fat, and increased protein content of the animals. In addition, FO-treated rats exhibited higher liver expression of TRβ1 and mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), at protein and mRNA levels, but no alteration of glutathione S-transferase or type 1 deiodinase. In hypothyroid condition, FO induced reduction in serum cholesterol and increase in body protein content, but lost the ability to reduce triglycerides and body fat, and to induce TRβ1 and mGDP expression. FO did not change PPARα liver abundance regardless of thyroid state; however, hypothyroidism led to a marked increase in PPARα liver content but did not alter TRβ1 or TRα expression. The data suggest that part of the effect of n-3 PUFA from FO on lipid metabolism is dependent on TH signaling in specific steps and together with the marked upregulation of PPARα in liver of hypothyroid rats suggest important in vivo consequences of the cross-talking between those fatty acids and TH pathways in liver metabolism.
Juliana Gastão Franco, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Josely Correa Koury, Paula Affonso Trotta, Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes Souza, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida, Natália da Silva Lima, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa and Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos
Resveratrol (Res) has been associated with protective effects against oxidative stress. This study evaluated the effect of Res over lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which up-regulates antioxidant enzymes, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in adult offspring whose mothers were protein restricted during lactation. Lactating Wistar rats were divided into control (C) group, which were fed a normal diet (23% protein), and low-protein and high-carbohydrate (LPHC) group, which were fed a diet containing 8% protein. After weaning (21 days), C and LPHC offspring were fed a normal diet until they were 180 days old. At the 160th day, animals were separated into four groups as follows: control, control+Res, LPHC, and LPHC+Res. Resveratrol was given for 20 days (30 mg/kg per day by gavage). LPHC animals showed a higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) without change in lipid peroxidation and SIRT1 expression. The treatment with Res increased TAC only in the control group without effect on lipid peroxidation and SIRT1. LPHC animals treated with Res had lower lipid peroxidation and higher protein and mRNA expression of SIRT1 without any further increase in TAC. No significant difference in liver Cu/Zn SOD expression was observed among the groups. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction during lactation programs the offspring for a higher antioxidant capacity, and these animals seem to respond to Res treatment with a lower lipid peroxidation and higher hepatic SIRT1 expression that we did not observe in the Res-treated controls. It is probable that the protective effect can be attributed to Res activating SIRT1, only in the LPHC-programed group.
Flavia Fonseca Bloise, Felipe Leite de Oliveira, Alberto Félix Nobrega, Rita Vasconcellos, Aline Cordeiro, Luciana Souza de Paiva, Dennis D Taub, Radovan Borojevic, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura and Valéria de Mello-Coelho
The effects of hyperthyroidism on B-cell physiology are still poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the influence of high-circulating levels of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) on bone marrow, blood, and spleen B-cell subsets, more specifically on B-cell differentiation into plasma cells, in C57BL/6 mice receiving daily injections of T3 for 14 days. As analyzed by flow cytometry, T3-treated mice exhibited increased frequencies of pre-B and immature B-cells and decreased percentages of mature B-cells in the bone marrow, accompanied by an increased frequency of blood B-cells, splenic newly formed B-cells, and total CD19+B-cells. T3 administration also promoted an increase in the size and cellularity of the spleen as well as in the white pulp areas of the organ, as evidenced by histological analyses. In addition, a decreased frequency of splenic B220+ cells correlating with an increased percentage of CD138+ plasma cells was observed in the spleen and bone marrow of T3-treated mice. Using enzyme-linked immunospot assay, an increased number of splenic immunoglobulin-secreting B-cells from T3-treated mice was detected ex vivo. Similar results were observed in mice immunized with hen egg lysozyme and aluminum adjuvant alone or together with treatment with T3. In conclusion, we provide evidence that high-circulating levels of T3 stimulate plasmacytogenesis favoring an increase in plasma cells in the bone marrow, a long-lived plasma cell survival niche. These findings indicate that a stimulatory effect on plasma cell differentiation could occur in untreated patients with Graves' disease.
Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes de Souza, Lorraine Soares Oliveira, Larissa Costa Faustino, Letícia Aragão Santiago, Flavia Fonseca Bloise, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been connected to beneficial effects elicited by calorie restriction. Physiological adaptation to starvation requires higher activity of SIRT1 and also the suppression of thyroid hormone (TH) action to achieve energy conservation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that those two events are correlated and that TH may be a regulator of SIRT1 expression. Forty-eight-hour fasting mice exhibited reduced serum TH and increased SIRT1 protein content in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT), and physiological thyroxine replacement prevented or attenuated the increment of SIRT1 in liver and BAT of fasted mice. Hypothyroid mice exhibited increased liver SIRT1 protein, while hyperthyroid ones showed decreased SIRT1 in liver and BAT. In the liver, decreased protein is accompanied by reduced SIRT1 activity and no alteration in its mRNA. Hyperthyroid and hypothyroid mice exhibited increases and decreases in food intake and body weight gain respectively. Food-restricted hyperthyroid animals (pair-fed to euthyroid group) exhibited liver and BAT SIRT1 protein levels intermediary between euthyroid and hyperthyroid mice fed ad libitum. Mice with TH resistance at the liver presented increased hepatic SIRT1 protein and activity, with no alteration in Sirt1 mRNA. These results suggest that TH decreases SIRT1 protein, directly and indirectly, via food ingestion control and, in the liver, this reduction involves TRβ. The SIRT1 reduction induced by TH has important implication to integrated metabolic responses to fasting, as the increase in SIRT1 protein requires the fasting-associated suppression of TH serum levels.