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AnneMarie Gagnon, Anne Landry and Alexander Sorisky

To clarify how anti-adipogenic factors act on preadipocytes to inhibit their differentiation, we compared preadipocyte signaling responses generated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF; anti-adipogenic) versus insulin (pro-adipogenic). PDGF, but not insulin, stimulated the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinase β (IKKβ) in a time-dependent manner. This PDGF-dependent phosphorylation event was inhibited by 60% (P<0.05) when the cells were pretreated with wortmannin, indicating a requirement for the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/AKT pathway. IKKβ phosphorylation by PDGF was neither accompanied by IκBα degradation nor NF-κB activation. PDGF inhibited human adipocyte differentiation, assessed by triacylglycerol accumulation (75% reduction; P<0.01) and by fatty acid synthase protein expression (60% reduction; P<0.05); these responses were no longer apparent in the presence of sc-514, a selective inhibitor of IKKβ. Our data describe a novel PDGF response in human preadipocytes that involves the pro-inflammatory kinase IKKβ and demonstrate that it is required for the inhibition of adipogenesis.

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AnneMarie Gagnon, Charlie Foster, Anne Landry and Alexander Sorisky

When adipose tissue accumulates in obesity, the ability of preadipocytes to differentiate permits a hyperplastic expansion of functional adipocytes that preserves insulin sensitivity. Adipose infiltration by macrophages is associated with an adipogenic deficit and the appearance of inflamed, insulin-resistant hypertrophied adipocytes. Interleukin 1β (IL1β) has been reported to account for the anti-adipogenic action of macrophages in a mouse model. Using the THP-1 human macrophage cell line and human primary preadipocytes, our objective was to determine whether IL1β was necessary for the ability of conditioned medium from THP-1 macrophages (THP-1-MacCM) to: i) stimulate human preadipocyte inhibitor of κB kinase β (IKKβ) and ii) inhibit human adipocyte differentiation. IL1β is present in THP-1-MacCM, and THP-1-MacCM or IL1β (500 pg/ml; its concentration in THP-1-MacCM) acutely stimulated IKKβ phosphorylation and inhibitor of κB (IκB) degradation in preadipocytes. IL1β was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis on its own, and this was blocked by SC-514, an IKKβ inhibitor, as has been reported for THP-1-MacCM. IκB degradation by IL1β-immunodepleted THP-1-MacCM was attenuated, whereas IKKβ phosphorylation and the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation were unchanged. Therefore, in contrast to what has been suggested for mouse cell models, IL1β is not required for the ability of MacCM to inhibit adipogenesis in human cell models.