Numerous steroid hormones are present in the foetus but their potential to activate oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha and/or beta is largely unknown. In this study, in vitro assays were developed to rapidly and specifically detect ERalpha or ERbeta activation by these steroid hormones. Our results showed that several oestrogen precursors and androgens are able to activate both ERalpha and ERbeta. Of special interest is that some of these precursors are able to activate ERalpha and ERbeta at concentrations that are present during human gestation. Moreover, some precursors (dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 17-hydroxylated pregnenolone sulphate) and androgens (5-androsten-3beta,16alpha,17beta-triol and testosterone) showed a more than 100-fold relative preference for ERbeta transactivation over ERalpha transactivation when compared with 17beta-oestradiol. Due to their relatively high levels, the precursor steroids DHEA and pregnenolone may be of particular importance in the regulation of ERbeta activity in vivo. To obtain information about the oestrogenic activity of the total pool of steroid hormones present during mammalian gestation, steroids were extracted from mouse embryos at different prenatal stages and assayed for oestrogenic activity in the established in vitro assays. Oestrogenic activity was detected in steroid extracts from all stages tested. This study has demonstrated that oestrogen receptor agonists are present in the murine embryo and that oestrogen precursors may contribute to the total pool of agonists during foetal life.
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JG Lemmen, CE van den Brink, J Legler, PT van der Saag, and B van der Burg
M Nielsen, PE Hoyer, JG Lemmen, B van der Burg, and AG Byskov
This study examined whether the endocrine disruptor octylphenol (OP) mimics the synthetic oestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) in ability to induce oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) expression in the newborn mouse uterine epithelium after prenatal exposure. Pregnant mice were given daily s.c. injections with DES (10 or 100 microgram DES/kg maternal wt) or OP (100 or 250 mg/kg maternal wt) or with vehicle alone from day 11.5 to 16.5 of pregnancy. ER-alpha expression was evaluated on histological sections by detecting ER-alpha mRNA with the in situ hybridization technique and ER-alpha protein using immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining was quantitated using a microspectrophotometer. Oestrogen-like activity of the DES and OP batches used for in vivo exposure was confirmed in an in vitro assay based on transient gene expression of an oestrogen-dependent reporter plasmid. In mice exposed prenatally to vehicle alone, the uterine epithelium did not express either ER-alpha mRNA or protein, while both were highly expressed in the stroma. Exposure to either DES dose induced the expression of both ER-alpha mRNA and protein in the epithelium, whereas it was unchanged in the stroma. In contrast, neither OP dose induced the expression of ER-alpha mRNA or protein in the epithelium and expression was unchanged in the stroma. Our data stress the importance of in vivo studies when investigating endocrine disruptors.