Intrauterine environments are related to fetal renal development and postnatal health. Influence of salty diets during pregnancy on renal functions and renin–angiotensin system (RAS) was determined in the ovine fetuses and offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed high-salt diet (HSD) or normal-salt diet (NSD) for 2 months during middle-to-late gestation. Fetal renal functions, plasma hormones, and mRNA and protein expressions of the key elements of renal RAS were measured in the fetuses and offspring. Fetal renal excretion of sodium was increased while urine volume decreased in the HSD group. Fetal blood urea nitrogen was increased, while kidney weight:body weight ratio decreased in the HSD group. The altered ratio was also observed in the offspring aged 15 and 90 days. Maternal and fetal plasma antidiuretic hormone was elevated without changes in plasma renin activity and Ang I levels, while plasma Ang II was decreased. The key elements of local renal RAS, including angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and AT2 receptor expression in both mRNA and protein, except renin, were altered following maternal high salt intake. The results suggest that high intake of salt during pregnancy affected fetal renal development associated with an altered expression of the renal key elements of RAS, some alterations of fetal origins remained after birth as possible risks in developing renal or cardiovascular diseases.
Caiping Mao, Rong Liu, Le Bo, Ningjing Chen, Shigang Li, Shuixiu Xia, Jie Chen, Dawei Li, Lubo Zhang, and Zhice Xu
Dong-Xu Han, Chang-Jiang Wang, Xu-Lei Sun, Jian-Bo Liu, Hao Jiang, Yan Gao, Cheng-Zhen Chen, Bao Yuan, and Jia-Bao Zhang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of RNA that have a stable structure characterized by covalently closed circular molecules and are involved in invasive pituitary adenomas and recurrent clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. However, information on circRNAs in the normal pituitary, especially in rats, is limited. In this study, we identified 4123 circRNAs in the immature (D15) and mature (D120) rat anterior pituitary using the Illumina platform, and 32 differentially expressed circRNAs were found. A total of 150 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched, and 16 KEGG pathways were found to contain differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we randomly selected eight highly expressed circRNAs and detected their relative expression levels in the mature and immature rat pituitary by qPCR. In addition, we predicted 90 interactions between 53 circRNAs and 57 miRNAs using miRanda. Notably, circ_0000964 and circ_0001303 are potential miRNA sponges that may regulate the Fshb gene. The expression profile of circRNAs in the immature and mature rat anterior pituitary may provide more information about the roles of circRNAs in the development and reproduction in mammals.
Prashant Regmi, Rajesh Chaudhary, Amanda J Page, Amy T Hutchison, Andrew D Vincent, Bo Liu, and Leonie Heilbronn
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) initiated early during the dark phase prevents the metabolic consequences of a high-fat diet in rodent models. However, the metabolic consequences of delaying the initiation of TRF, akin to breakfast skipping in humans, is unclear. We assigned 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n = 192) to chow or high-fat diet ad libitum (AL) for 4 weeks, before randomization to continue AL or 10 h of TRF, initiated at lights off (TRFe) or 4-h after lights off (TRFd) for a further 8 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests (1 g/kg), metabolic monitoring and body composition by echoMRI were performed, and tissues were collected at six time points. TRF reduced weight and fat mass vs AL, with a greater reduction in TRFe vs TRFd. TRF improved glucose tolerance and protected mice from high-fat diet-induced hepatosteatosis vs AL, with no difference between TRFe and TRFd. TRF increased the amplitude of Bmal1, Cry1, Per2, Nampt, and Nocturnin mRNA levels in liver. A phase delay in Bmal1, Cry1, Per2, Reverbα, Nampt, NAD, Sirt1, and Nocturnin was observed in TRFd. Thus, delaying TRF limited the weight benefit and induced a phase delay in the hepatic clock, but improved metabolic health. Allowing more flexibility in when TRF is initiated may increase the translational potential of this dietary approach in humans.