Fatty acids have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on insulin secretion. Long-term exposure to fatty acids results in impaired insulin secretion whilst acute exposure has generally been found to enhance insulin release. However, there are conflicting data in the literature as to the relative efficacy of various fatty acids and on the glucose dependency of the stimulatory effect. Moreover, there is little information on the responses of human islets in vitro to fatty acids. We have therefore studied the acute effects of a range of fatty acids on insulin secretion from rat and human islets of Langerhans at different glucose concentrations. Fatty acids (0.5 mM) acutely stimulated insulin release from rat islets of Langerhans in static incubations in a glucose-dependent manner. The greatest effect was seen at high glucose concentration (16.7 mM) and little or no response was elicited at 3.3 or 8.7 mM glucose. Long-chain fatty acids (palmitate and stearate) were more effective than medium-chain (octanoate). Saturated fatty acids (palmitate, stearate) were more effective than unsaturated (palmitoleate, linoleate, elaidate). Stimulation of insulin secretion by fatty acids was also studied in perifused rat islets. No effects were observed at 3.3 mM glucose but fatty acids markedly potentiated the effect of 16.7 mM glucose. The combination of fatty acid plus glucose was less effective when islets had been first challenged with glucose alone. The insulin secretory responses to fatty acids of human islets in static incubations were similar to those of rat islets. In order to examine whether the responses to glucose and to fatty acids could be varied independently we used an animal model in which lactating rats are fed a low-protein diet during early lactation. Islets from rats whose mothers had been malnourished during lactation were still able to respond effectively to fatty acids despite a lowered secretory response to glucose. These data emphasise the complex interrelationships between nutrients in the control of insulin release and support the view that fatty acids play an important role in glucose homeostasis during undernutrition.
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C Gravena, PC Mathias, and SJ Ashcroft
A E Andreazzi, D X Scomparin, F P Mesquita, S L Balbo, C Gravena, J C De Oliveira, W Rinaldi, R M G Garcia, S Grassiolli, and P C F Mathias
Swimming exercises by weaning pups inhibited hypothalamic obesity onset and recovered sympathoadrenal axis activity, but this was not observed when exercise training was applied to young adult mice. However, the mechanisms producing this improved metabolism are still not fully understood. Low-intensity swimming training started at an early age and was undertaken to observe glycemic control in hypothalamic–obese mice produced by neonatal treatment with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG). Whereas MSG and control mice swam for 15 min/day, 3 days a week, from the weaning stage up to 90 days old, sedentary MSG and normal mice did not exercise at all. After 14 h of fasting, animals were killed at 90 days of age. Perigonadal fat accumulation was measured to estimate obesity. Fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations were also measured. Fresh isolated pancreatic islets were used to test glucose-induced insulin release and total catecholamine from the adrenal glands was measured. Mice were also submitted to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. MSG-obese mice showed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Severe reduction of adrenal catecholamines content has also been reported. Besides, the inhibition of fat tissue accretion, exercise caused normalization of insulin blood levels and glycemic control. The pancreatic islets of obese mice, with impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, were recovered after swimming exercises. Adrenal catecholamine content was increased by swimming. Results show that attenuation of MSG-hypothalamic obesity onset is caused, at least in part, by modulation of sympathoadrenal axis activity imposed by early exercise, which may be associated with subsequent glucose metabolism improvement.