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  • Author: C S Rosenfeld x
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The ability of the kidney to extract (inactivate and excrete) argininevasopressin (AVP) from the blood was studied in the isolated perfused rabbit kidney. AVP was added to the blood reservoir to give an initial approximate concentration of 100 μu./ml plasma and samples were taken simultaneously from the arterial and venous side at 5, 15, 30 and 45 min. The AVP concentration in the plasma samples was determined by bioassay in the water-loaded, ethanol-anaesthetized rat. The clearance (extraction ratio x renal plasma flow) of AVP from the blood was concentration-dependent. The average extraction ratio ranged from 0·25 at levels of 100 to 44 μu./ml plasma and 0·42 at levels of 44 to 19 μu./ml plasma. The excretion of AVP in the urine was 23% and 29% respectively of the calculated filtered load, in two isolated perfused kidneys, indicating tubular reabsorption and/or tissue inactivation of the filtered hormone.

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S E Gargosky, L C Giudice, R G Rosenfeld and A T Fazleabas


The ratio of the serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) to IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 is highly correlated (Baxter & Martin 1986). During pregnancy in the baboon, this ratio is perturbed; serum IGFBP-3 concentrations increase 10-fold, yet IGF-I levels are unaltered and IGF-II is increased only 2-fold (Giudice et al. 1993). The aims of this study were to determine the molecular distribution of IGFBP-3 and to identify the tissue source and form(s) of IGFBP-3 during pregnancy in the baboon. Serum of non-pregnant and pregnant baboons, and conditioned media of decidua and placental explant cultures were characterized using neutral size-exclusion chromatography in combination with Western ligand blot, Western immunoblot, an IGFBP-3 radioimmunoassay (RIA) and an IGFBP-3 protease assay. Localization of immunoreactive IGFBP-3 was determined by immunocytochemistry, and expression of IGFBP-3 mRNA in the placental and decidual explants was examined by Northern blot analysis.

RIA confirmed that immunoreactive IGFBP-3 is increased 10-fold in pregnancy serum compared with non-pregnancy serum. Size-exclusion chromatography combined with an IGFBP-3 RIA revealed that, unlike non-pregnancy serum where 70% of the immunoreactive IGFBP-3 elutes in the 150 kDa ternary complex, equal amounts of immunoreactive IGFBP-3 were measured in pregnancy serum in the ≤150 and 60 kDa IGFBP regions. Western analysis revealed that non-pregnancy serum contained predominantly a 45–40 kDa IGFBP-3 doublet and a 28 kDa immunoreactive form of IGFBP-3, while in pregnancy serum IGFBP-3 existed as a 45–40 kDa doublet, as well as 26–28 kDa and 18 kDa immunoreactive forms. These alternative forms of IGFBP-3 were not attributable to detectable IGFBP-3 protease activity.

To identify the source of the increased serum levels of IGFBP-3 during pregnancy, we examined explant culture media of baboon decidua and placenta. Size-exclusion chromatography combined with RIA and Western analysis revealed that: (1) more immunoreactive IGFBP-3 was produced by decidual cultures than by placental explants, but less 45–40 kDa IGFBP-3 was present in decidua; (2) the immunoreactive forms of IGFBP-3 detected in decidua were similar to those found in maternal serum; (3) placental explants secreted only 45–40 kDa IGFBP-3 in culture. IGFBP-3 was immunohistochemically localized to the cells of placental villi, and to the perinuclear region of the decidual cells and staining for IGFBP-3 was more intense in the decidua than in the placenta.

Northern analysis of the explant cultures revealed two IGFBP-3 mRNA transcripts of 2·4 and 1·7 kb in both decidua and placenta which may account for the different immunoreactive forms of IGFBP-3 detected in the baboon. However analysis of non-pregnancy liver also revealed two IGFBP-3 transcripts of 2·4 and 1·7 kb. These data suggest that the two transcripts are not solely pregnancy-associated and levels of protein may be the reason for detection of multiple immunoreactive IGFBP-3 fragments in pregnancy.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 147, 449–461

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J J Whyte, A P Alexenko, A M Davis, M R Ellersieck, E D Fountain and C S Rosenfeld

We examined the effects of three maternal diets (very high fat (VHF), low fat (LF), and control (Purina 5015)) on serum steroids, free fatty acids (FFA), and vaginal pH in National Institutes of Health Swiss mice. Females were fed (VHF, n = 33; LF, n = 33; 5015, n = 48) from 4 to 16 weeks of age. Following breeding, female serum was collected at 0.5 (pre-implantation, early diestrus) or 8.5 (post-implantation, mid-diestrus) days post-coitus (dpc). The serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, and FFA were analyzed at both collection points, and vaginal pH at 0.5 dpc. Striking differences in steroids and FFA were observed at 0.5 dpc among the groups. Estradiol was higher in the VHF (14.1 ± 3.0 pg/ml), compared with LF mice (5.2 ± 2.3 pg/ml; P≤ 0.05). In contrast, 0.5 dpc testosterone was lower in the VHF (10.5 ± 3.0 pg/ml) versus the LF group (32.7 ± 8.4 pg/ml; P≤ 0.05). At 8.5 dpc, progesterone was higher in the VHF (89.6 ± 6.7 ng/ml) versus the 5015 group (60.1 ± 4.9 ng/ml; P≤ 0.05). VHF mice had higher FFA concentrations at 0.5 dpc (1.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l) than LF and control mice (0.5 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l respectively; P≤ 0.05). At 8.5 dpc, VHF females had higher serum FFA (0.8 ± 0.1 mmol/l) than LF and control females (0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l; P≤ 0.05). Mean vaginal pH of VHF females (6.41 ± 0.09) was lower than 5015 females (6.76 ± 0.10; P≤ 0.05). These diet-induced alterations in serum steroid and FFA concentrations might affect several reproductive processes, including preferential fertilization by one class of sperm over the other and sex bias in pre- and post-implantational embryonic development.