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SE Ozanne, CL Wang, MW Dorling, and CJ Petry

Numerous studies have shown a relationship between early growth restriction and Type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that offspring of rats fed a low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy and lactation have a worse glucose tolerance in late adult life compared with controls. In contrast, in young adult life LP offspring have a better glucose tolerance which is associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to compare the regulation of glucose uptake and lipolysis in adipocytes by insulin in control and LP offspring. LP adipocytes had increased basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake compared with controls. There was no difference in basal rates of lipolysis. Isoproterenol stimulated lipolysis in both groups, but it was more effective on LP adipocytes. Insulin reduced lipolytic rates in controls to basal levels but had a reduced effect in LP adipocytes. Protein kinase B activity matched glucose uptake, with LP adipocytes having elevated activities. These results suggest that early growth retardation has long-term effects on adipocyte metabolism. In addition, they show selective resistance to different metabolic actions of insulin and provide insight into the mechanisms by which insulin regulates glucose uptake and lipolysis.

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SE Ozanne, GS Olsen, LL Hansen, KJ Tingey, BT Nave, CL Wang, K Hartil, CJ Petry, AJ Buckley, and L Mosthaf-Seedorf

Epidemiological studies have revealed a relationship between early growth restriction and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. A rat model of maternal protein restriction has been used to investigate the mechanistic basis of this relationship. This model causes insulin resistance and diabetes in adult male offspring. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of early growth restriction on muscle insulin action in late adult life. Rats were fed either a 20% or an isocaloric 8% protein diet during pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto a 20% protein diet and studied at 15 Months of age. Soleus muscle from growth restricted offspring (LP) (of dams fed 8% protein diet) had similar basal glucose uptakes compared with the control group (mothers fed 20% protein diet). Insulin stimulated glucose uptake into control muscle but had no effect on LP muscle. This impaired insulin action was not related to changes in expression of either the insulin receptor or glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4). However, LP muscle expressed significantly less (P<0.001) of the zeta isoform of protein kinase C (PKC zeta) compared with controls. This PKC isoform has been shown to be positively involved in GLUT 4-mediated glucose transport. Expression levels of other isoforms (betaI, betaII, epsilon, theta) of PKC were similar in both groups. These results suggest that maternal protein restriction leads to muscle insulin resistance. Reduced expression of PKC zeta may contribute to the mechanistic basis of this resistance.