Vitamin D deficiency is associated with symptoms of skeletal muscle myopathy including muscle weakness and fatigue. Recently, vitamin D-related metabolites have been linked to the maintenance of mitochondrial function within skeletal muscle. However, current evidence is limited to in vitro models and the effects of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency upon skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo have received little attention. In order to examine the role of vitamin D in the maintenance of mitochondrial function in vivo, we utilised an established model of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were either fed a control diet (2200 IU/kg i.e. vitamin D replete) or a vitamin D-deplete (0 IU/kg) diet for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months. Gastrocnemius muscle mitochondrial function and ADP sensitivity were assessed via high-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial protein content via immunoblotting. As a result of 3 months of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency, respiration supported via complex I + II (CI + IIP) and the electron transport chain (ETC) were 35 and 37% lower when compared to vitamin D-replete mice (P < 0.05). Despite functional alterations, citrate synthase activity, AMPK phosphorylation, mitofilin, OPA1 and ETC subunit protein content remained unchanged in response to dietary intervention (P > 0.05). In conclusion, we report that 3 months of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in C57BL/6J mice. Our data, when combined with previous in vitro observations, suggest that vitamin D-mediated regulation of mitochondrial function may underlie the exacerbated muscle fatigue and performance deficits observed during vitamin D deficiency.
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Stephen P Ashcroft, Gareth Fletcher, Ashleigh M Philp, Carl Jenkinson, Shatarupa Das, Philip M Hansbro, Philip J Atherton, and Andrew Philp
Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer A Tamblyn, Alexandra Shattock, Annsha Joseph, Dean P Larner, Carl Jenkinson, Janesh Gupta, Stephane R Gross, and Martin Hewison
Early pregnancy is characterised by elevated circulating levels of vitamin D binding protein (DBP). The impact of this on maternal and fetal health is unclear but DBP is present in the placenta, and DBP gene variants have been linked to malplacentation disorders such as preeclampsia. The functional role of DBP in the placenta was investigated using trophoblastic JEG3, BeWo and HTR8 cells. All three cell lines showed intracellular DBP with increased expression and nuclear localisation of DBP in cells treated with the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). When cultured in the serum of mice lacking DBP (DBP−/−), JEG3 cells showed no intracellular DBP indicating uptake of exogenous DBP. Inhibition of the membrane receptor for DBP, megalin, also suppressed intracellular DBP. Elimination of intracellular DBP with DBP−/− serum or megalin inhibitor suppressed matrix invasion by trophoblast cells and was associated with increased nuclear accumulation of G-actin. Conversely, treatment with 1,25D enhanced matrix invasion. This was independent of the nuclear vitamin D receptor but was associated with enhanced ERK phosphorylation, and inhibition of ERK kinase suppressed trophoblast matrix invasion. When cultured with serum from pregnant women, trophoblast matrix invasion correlated with DBP concentration, and DBP was lower in first-trimester serum from women who later developed preeclampsia. These data show that the trophoblast matrix invasion involves uptake of serum DBP and associated intracellular actin-binding and homeostasis. DBP is a potential marker of placentation disorders such as preeclampsia and may also provide a therapeutic option for improved placenta and pregnancy health.