Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been recognized in the last decade as an important contributor of bone remodelling and is necessary for optimal bone quality. However, GIP receptors are expressed in several tissues in the body and little is known about the direct vs indirect effects of GIP on bone remodelling and quality. The aims of the present study were to validate two new GIP analogues, called [d-Ala2]-GIP-Tag and [d-Ala2]-GIP1–30, which specifically target either bone or whole-body GIP receptors, respectively; and to ascertain the beneficial effects of GIP therapy on bone in a mouse model of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Both GIP analogues exhibited similar binding capacities at the GIP receptor and intracellular responses as full-length GIP1–42. Furthermore, only [d-Ala2]-GIP-Tag, but not [d-Ala2]-GIP1–30, was undoubtedly found exclusively in the bone matrix and released at acidic pH. In ovariectomized animals, [d-Ala2]-GIP1–30 but not [d-Ala2]-GIP-Tag ameliorated bone stiffness at the same magnitude than alendronate treatment. Only [d-Ala2]-GIP1–30 treatment led to significant ameliorations in cortical microarchitecture. Although alendronate treatment increased the hardness of the bone matrix and the type B carbonate substitution in the hydroxyapatite crystals, none of the GIP analogues modified bone matrix composition. Interestingly, in ovariectomy-induced bone loss, [d-Ala2]-GIP-Tag failed to alter bone strength, microarchitecture and bone matrix composition. Overall, this study shows that the use of a GIP analogue that target whole-body GIP receptors might be useful to improve bone strength in ovariectomized animals.
Guillaume Mabilleau, Benoit Gobron, Aleksandra Mieczkowska, Rodolphe Perrot and Daniel Chappard
Guillaume Mabilleau, Aleksandra Mieczkowska, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt and Daniel Chappard
Bone is permanently remodeled by a complex network of local, hormonal, and neuronal factors that affect osteoclast and osteoblast biology. Among these factors, a role for gastrointestinal hormones has been proposed based on the evidence that bone resorption dramatically falls after a meal. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) is one of these gut hormones, and despite several reports suggesting an anabolic effect of GLP1, or its stable analogs, on bone mass, little is known about the effects of GLP1/GLP1 receptor on bone strength. In this study, we investigated by three-point bending, quantitative X-ray microradiography, microcomputed tomography, qBEI, and FTIRI bone strength and bone quality in male Glp1r knockout (Glp1r KO) mice when compared with control WT animals. Animals with a deletion of Glp1r presented with a significant reduction in ultimate load, yield load, stiffness, and total absorbed and post-yield energies when compared with WT animals. Furthermore, cortical thickness and bone outer diameter were significantly decreased in deficient animals. The mineral quantity and quality were not significantly different between Glp1r KO and WT animals. On the other hand, the maturity of the collagen matrix was significantly reduced in deficient animals and associated with lowered material properties. Taken together, these data support a positive effect of GLP1R on bone strength and quality.
Caroline Alfaia, Vincent Robert, Kevin Poissenot, Yves Levern, Daniel Guillaume, Shel-Hwa Yeo, William H Colledge and Isabelle Franceschini
Kiss1 neurons of the arcuate (ARC) nucleus form an interconnected network of cells that communicate via neurokinin B (encoded by Tac2) and its receptor (encoded by Tacr3) and play key roles in the control of the reproductive axis through sex hormone-regulated synthesis and release of kisspeptin peptides (Kp, encoded by Kiss1). The aim of this study was to determine whether the Kiss1 cell population of the ARC already displays sexually dimorphic features at embryonic age E16.5 in mice. At this time of development, Kiss1-GFP- and Kp-immunoreactive cell bodies were restricted to the ARC and not found in the pre-optic area (POA). The Kiss1-GFP cell population was identical in size between sexes but had significantly lower Kiss1, Tac2, and Tacr3 mRNA levels and lower Kp-ir fiber density in the POA in male compared to female fetuses. Receptors for androgen (Ar) and estrogen (Esr1, Esr2, Gpr30) and the Cyp19a1 gene (encoding the estradiol-producing enzyme aromatase) transcripts were also detected in fetal ARC Kiss1-GFP cells with significant sex differences for Ar (higher in males) and Esr1 (higher in females). Functional studies on primary cultures of sorted fetal Kiss1-GFP cells revealed a significant negative effect of estradiol treatment on neurite outgrowth on the fourth day of culture in the female group specifically. We conclude that the ARC Kiss1 cell population is already sexually differentiated at E16.5 and that its morphogenetic development may be particularly vulnerable to estradiol exposure at this early developmental time.