After menopause, the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is due not only to estrogen decline but also to androgen decline. This study examined the effects of either estradiol (E2) or testosterone replacement alone or E2–testosterone combination on isolated myocytes in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Furthermore, we determined whether the effects are associated with β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR). Five groups of adult female Sprague–Dawley rats were used: Sham operation (Sham) rats, bilateral Ovx rats, Ovx rats with E2 40 μg/kg per day (Ovx+E), Ovx rats with testosterone 150 μg/kg per day (Ovx+T), and Ovx rats with E2 40 μg/kg per day+testosterone 150 μg/kg per day (Ovx+E/T). We determined the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, percentage of rod-shaped cells and apoptosis of ventricular myocytes from rats of all groups subjected to I/R. Then, we determined the above indices and contractile function with or without a selective β2-AR antagonist ICI 118 551. We also determined the expression of β2-AR. Our data show that either E2 or testosterone replacement alone or E2 and testosterone in combination decreased the LDH release, increased the percentage of rod-shaped cells, reduced apoptotic cells (%), and combination treatment appeared to be more effective than either E2 or testosterone replacement alone. ICI 118 551 abolished the effects of the three. Combination supplementation also enhanced the expression of β2-AR. We concluded that in Ovx rats, testosterone enhances E2's cardioprotection, while E2 and testosterone in combination was more effective and the protective effects may be associated with β2-AR. The study highlights the potential therapeutic application for CVD in postmenopausal women.
Aiying Liu, Liping Gao, Shoulei Kang, Ying Liu, Chuanying Xu, Hong Sun, Dongye Li, and Changdong Yan
Lu Fu, Hongyuan Zhang, Jeremiah Ong’achwa Machuki, Tingting Zhang, Lin Han, Lili Sang, Lijuan Wu, Zhiwei Zhao, Matthew James Turley, Xide Hu, Hongjian Hou, Dongye Li, Sian E Harding, and Hong Sun
Currently, there are no conventional treatments for stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCM, also known as Takotsubo syndrome), and the existing therapies are not effective. The recently discovered G protein- coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) executes the rapid effects of estrogen (E2). In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of GPER on epinephrine (Epi)-induced cardiac stress. SCM was developed with a high dose of Epi in adult rats and human-induced pluripotent stem cells–derived cardiomyocytes(hiPSC-CMs). (1) GPER activation with agonist G1/ E2 prevented an increase in left ventricular internal diameter at end-systole, the decrease both in ejection fraction and cardiomyocyte shortening amplitude elicited by Epi. (2) G1/ E2 mitigated heart injury induced by Epi, as revealed by reduced plasma brain natriuretic peptide and lactate dehydrogenase release into culture supernatant. (3) G1/E2 prevented the raised phosphorylation and internalization of β2-adrenergic receptors（β2AR）. (4) Blocking Gαi abolished the cardiomyocyte contractile inhibition by Epi. G1/E2 downregulated Gαi activity of cardiomyocytes and further upregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration in culture supernatant treated with Epi. (5) G1/E2 rescued decreased Ca2+ amplitude and Ca2+ channel current (ICa-L) in rat cardiomyocytes. Notably, the above effects of E2 were blocked by the GPER antagonist, G15. In hiPSC-CM (which expressed GPER, β1AR and β2ARs), knockdown of GPER by siRNA abolished E2 effects on increasing ICa-L and action potential duration in the stress state. In conclusion, GPER played a protective role against SCM. Mechanistically, this effect was mediated by balancing the coupling of β2AR to the Gαs and Gαi signalling pathways.