During illness, changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, known as nonthyroidal illness and characterised by decreased serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) without an increase in TSH. A mouse model of chronic illness is local inflammation, induced by a turpentine injection in each hind limb. Although serum T3 and T4 are markedly decreased in this model, it is unknown whether turpentine administration affects the central part of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT-axis). We therefore studied thyroid hormone metabolism in hypothalamus and pituitary of mice during chronic inflammation induced by turpentine injection. Using pair-fed controls, we could differentiate between the effects of chronic inflammation per se and the effects of restricted food intake as a result of illness. Chronic inflammation increased interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in the hypothalamus more rapidly than in the pituitary. This hypothalamic cytokine response was associated with a rapid increase in local D2 mRNA expression. By contrast, no changes were present in pituitary D2 expression. TSHβ mRNA expression was altered compared with controls. Comparing chronic inflamed mice with pair-fed controls, both preproTSH releasing hormone (TRH) and D3 mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus were significantly lower 48 h after turpentine administration. The timecourse of TSHβ mRNA expression was completely different in inflamed mice compared with pair-fed mice. Turpentine administration resulted in significantly decreased TSHβ mRNA expression only after 24 h while later in time it was lower in pair-fed controls. In conclusion, central thyroid hormone metabolism is altered during chronic inflammation and this cannot solely be attributed to diminished food intake.
A Boelen, J Kwakkel, W M Wiersinga and E Fliers
M T Ackermans, L P Klieverik, P Ringeling, E Endert, A Kalsbeek and E Fliers
Thyronamines are exciting new players at the crossroads of thyroidology and metabolism. Here, we report the development of a method to measure 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) and thyronamine (T0AM) in plasma and tissue samples. The detection limit of the method was 0.25 nmol/l in plasma and 0.30 pmol/g in tissue both for T1AM and for T0AM. Using this method, we were able to demonstrate T1AM and T0AM in plasma and liver from rats treated with synthetic thyronamines. Although we demonstrated the in vivo conversion of 13C6-thyroxine (13C6-T4) to 13C6-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine, we did not detect 13C6-T1AM in plasma or brain samples of rats treated with 13C6-T4. Surprisingly, our method did not detect any endogenous T1AM or T0AM in plasma from vehicle-treated rats, nor in human plasma or thyroid tissue. Although we are cautious to draw general conclusions from these negative findings and in spite of the fact that insufficient sensitivity of the method related to extractability and stability of T0AM cannot be completely excluded at this point, our findings raise questions on the biosynthetic pathways and concentrations of endogenous T1AM and T0AM.
MJ Diekman, B Zandieh Doulabi, M Platvoet-Ter Schiphorst, E Fliers, O Bakker and WM Wiersinga
The gene expression of thyroid hormone receptors (TR) in ECRF24 immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated at both the mRNA and the protein level. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) production were measured in response to triiodothyronine (T(3)) administration. A real-time PCR technique was used to quantify the presence of mRNAs encoding for the different isoforms of the TR. The binding of T(3) to nuclear TRs was studied in isolated endothelial cell nuclei by Scatchard analysis. Expression of TR at the protein level was investigated by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting using TR-isoform-specific polyclonal rabbit antisera. ET-1 and vWF were measured in cell supernatants with a two-site immunoenzymatic assay. Scatchard analysis yielded a maximum binding capacity of 55 fmol T(3)/mg DNA (+/-200 sites/cell) with a K(d) of 125 pmol/l. Messenger RNAs encoding for the TRalpha1 and the TRalpha2 and the TRbeta1 were observed. The approximate number of mRNA molecules per cell was at least 50 molecules per cell for TRalpha1, five for TRalpha2 and two for TRbeta1. Immunocytochemistry revealed (peri)nuclear staining for TRbeta1, TRalpha1 and TRalpha2. ET-1 and vWF secretion did not increase upon addition of T(3) (10(-10)-10(-6) M). Immortalized ECRF24 HUVECs express TR, but at low levels. The number of TRs per endothelial cell is probably too low to be functional and no change in ET-1 or vWF production was found after addition of T(3). Therefore we conclude that the genomic effects of T(3) are unlikely to occur in these immortalized HUVECs.
A Boelen, J Kwakkel, DC Thijssen-Timmer, A Alkemade, E Fliers and WM Wiersinga
During illness, major changes in thyroid hormone metabolism and regulation occur; these are collectively known as non-thyroidal illness and are characterized by decreased serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) without an increase in serum TSH. Whether alterations in the central part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis precede changes in peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism instead of vice versa, or occur simultaneously, is presently unknown. We therefore studied the time-course of changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in the HPT axis of mice during acute illness induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS).LPS rapidly induced interleukin-1beta mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and liver. This was followed by almost simultaneous changes in the pituitary (decreased expression of thyroid receptor (TR)-beta2, TSHbeta and 5'-deiodinase (D1) mRNAs), the thyroid (decreased TSH receptor mRNA) and the liver (decreased TRbeta1 and D1 mRNA). In the hypothalamus, type 2 deiodinase mRNA expression was strongly increased whereas preproTRH mRNA expression did not change after LPS. Serum T(3) and T(4) fell only after 24 h.Our results suggested almost simultaneous involvement of the whole HPT axis in the downregulation of thyroid hormone metabolism during acute illness.
A Boelen, J Kwakkel, X G Vos, W M Wiersinga and E Fliers
Profound changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur in the central part of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis during fasting. Hypothalamic changes are partly reversed by leptin administration, which decreases during fasting. It is unknown to what extent leptin affects the HPT axis at the level of the pituitary. We, therefore, studied fasting-induced alterations in pituitary thyroid hormone metabolism, as well as effects of leptin administration on these changes. Because refeeding rapidly increased serum leptin, the same parameters were studied after fasting followed by refeeding. Fasting for 24 h decreased serum T3 and T4 and pituitary TSHβ, type 2deiodinase (D2), and thyroid hormone receptor β2 (TRβ2) mRNA expression. The decrease in D2 and TRβ2 mRNA expression was prevented when 20 μg leptin was administered twice during fasting. By contrast, the decrease in TSHβ mRNA expression was unaffected. A single dose of leptin given after 24 h fasting did not affect decreased TSHβ, D2, and TRβ2 mRNA expression, while 4 h refeeding resulted in pituitary D2 and TRβ2 mRNA expression as observed in control mice. Serum leptin, T3, and T4 after refeeding were similar compared with leptin administration. We conclude that fasting decreases pituitary TSHβ, D2, and TRβ2 mRNA expression, which (with the exception of TSHβ) can be prevented by leptin administration during fasting. Following 24 h fasting, 4 h refeeding completely restores pituitary D2 and TRβ2 mRNA expression, while a single leptin dose is ineffective. This indicates that other postingestion signals may be necessary to modulate rapidly the fasting-induced decrease in pituitary D2 and TRβ2 mRNA expression.
Z Zhang, P H Bisschop, E Foppen, H C van Beeren, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen and E Fliers
In addition to the direct effects of thyroid hormone (TH) on peripheral organs, recent work showed metabolic effects of TH on the liver and brown adipose tissue via neural pathways originating in the hypothalamic paraventricular and ventromedial nucleus (PVN and VMH). So far, these experiments focused on short-term administration of TH. The aim of this study is to develop a technique for chronic and nucleus-specific intrahypothalamic administration of the biologically active TH tri-iodothyronine (T3). We used beeswax pellets loaded with an amount of T3 based on in vitro experiments showing stable T3 release (∼5 nmol l−1) for 32 days. Upon stereotactic bilateral implantation, T3 concentrations were increased 90-fold in the PVN region and 50-fold in the VMH region after placing T3-containing pellets in the rat PVN or VMH for 28 days respectively. Increased local T3 concentrations were reflected by selectively increased mRNA expression of the T3-responsive genes Dio3 and Hr in the PVN or in the VMH. After placement of T3-containing pellets in the PVN, Tshb mRNA was significantly decreased in the pituitary, without altered Trh mRNA in the PVN region. Plasma T3 and T4 concentrations decreased without altered plasma TSH. We observed no changes in pituitary Tshb mRNA, plasma TSH, or plasma TH in rats after placement of T3-containing pellets in the VMH. We developed a method to selectively and chronically deliver T3 to specific hypothalamic nuclei. This will enable future studies on the chronic effects of intrahypothalamic T3 on energy metabolism via the PVN or VMH.
E M de Vries, H C van Beeren, M T Ackermans, A Kalsbeek, E Fliers and A Boelen
A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36 h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS.
Charlene Diepenbroek, Leslie Eggels, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek, Mireille J Serlie and Susanne E la Fleur
We showed previously that rats on a free-choice high-fat, high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet become rapidly obese and develop glucose intolerance within a week. Interestingly, neither rats on a free-choice high-fat diet (fcHF), although equally obese and hyperphagic, nor rats on a free-choice high-sugar (fcHS) diet consuming more sugar water, develop glucose intolerance. Here, we investigate whether changes in insulin sensitivity contribute to the observed glucose intolerance and whether this is related to consumption of saturated fat and/or sugar water. Rats received either a fcHFHS, fcHF, fcHS or chow diet for one week. We performed a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp with stable isotope dilution to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP; hepatic insulin sensitivity) and glucose disappearance (Rd; peripheral insulin sensitivity). Rats on all free-choice diets were hyperphagic, but only fcHFHS-fed rats showed significantly increased adiposity. EGP suppression by hyperinsulinemia in fcHF-fed and fcHFHS-fed rats was significantly decreased compared with chow-fed rats. One week fcHFHS diet also significantly decreased Rd. Neither EGP suppression nor Rd was affected in fcHS-fed rats. Our results imply that, short-term fat feeding impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity, whereas short-term consumption of both saturated fat and sugar water impaired hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. The latter likely contributed to glucose intolerance observed previously. In contrast, overconsumption of only sugar water affected insulin sensitivity slightly, but not significantly, in spite of similar adiposity as fcHF-fed rats and higher sugar intake compared with fcHFHS-fed rats. These data imply that the palatable component consumed plays a role in the development of site-specific insulin sensitivity.
J Kwakkel, H C van Beeren, M T Ackermans, M C Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, E Fliers, W M Wiersinga and A Boelen
We have previously shown that skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 (D2) mRNA (listed as Dio2 in MGI Database) is upregulated in an animal model of acute illness. However, human studies on the expression of muscle D2 during illness report conflicting data. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of skeletal muscle D2 and D2-regulating factors in two mouse models of illness that differ in timing and severity of illness: 1) turpentine-induced inflammation, and 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. During turpentine-induced inflammation, D2 mRNA and activity increased compared to pair-fed controls, most prominently at day 1 and 2, whereas after S. pneumoniae infection D2 mRNA decreased. We evaluated the association of D2 expression with serum thyroid hormones, (de-)ubiquitinating enzymes ubiquitin-specific peptidase 33 and WD repeat and SOCS box-containing 1 (Wsb1), cytokine expression and activation of inflammatory pathways and cAMP pathway. During chronic inflammation the increased muscle D2 expression is associated with the activation of the cAMP pathway. The normalization of D2 5 days after turpentine injection coincides with increased Wsb1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Muscle interleukin-1β (Il1b) expression correlated with decreased D2 mRNA expression after S. pneumoniae infection. In conclusion, muscle D2 expression is differentially regulated during illness, probably related to differences in the inflammatory response and type of pathology. D2 mRNA and activity increases in skeletal muscle during the acute phase of chronic inflammation compared to pair-fed controls probably due to activation of the cAMP pathway. In contrast, muscle D2 mRNA decreases 48 h after a severe bacterial infection, which is associated with local Il1b mRNA expression and might also be due to diminished food-intake.