The bile acid receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), regulate multiple pathways, including glucose and lipid metabolism. In a rabbit model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, long-term treatment with the dual FXR/TGR5 agonist INT-767 reduces visceral adipose tissue accumulation, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. INT-767 significantly improves the hallmarks of insulin resistance in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and induces mitochondrial and brown fat-specific markers. VAT preadipocytes isolated from INT-767-treated rabbits, compared to preadipocytes from HFD, show increased mRNA expression of brown adipogenesis markers. In addition, INT-767 induces improved mitochondrial ultrastructure and dynamic, reduced superoxide production and improved insulin signaling and lipid handling in preadipocytes. Both in vivo and in vitro treatments with INT-767 counteract, in preadipocytes, the HFD-induced alterations by upregulating genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In preadipocytes, INT-767 behaves mainly as a TGR5 agonist, directly activating dose dependently the cAMP/PKA pathway. However, in vitro experiments also suggest that FXR activation by INT-767 contributes to the insulin signaling improvement. INT-767 treatment counteracts HFD-induced liver histological alterations and normalizes the increased pro-inflammatory genes. INT-767 also induces a significant reduction of fatty acid synthesis and fibrosis markers, while increasing lipid handling, insulin signaling and mitochondrial markers. In conclusion, INT-767 significantly counteracts HFD-induced liver and fat alterations, restoring insulin sensitivity and prompting preadipocytes differentiation toward a metabolically healthy phenotype.
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Elena Maneschi, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Rapizzi, Daniele Bani, Daniele Guasti, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Andrea Galli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi and Linda Vignozzi
Erica Sarchielli, Paolo Comeglio, Sandra Filippi, Ilaria Cellai, Giulia Guarnieri, Daniele Guasti, Elena Rapizzi, Giulia Rastrelli, Daniele Bani, Gabriella Vannelli, Linda Vignozzi, Annamaria Morelli and Mario Maggi
Lifestyle modifications, including physical exercise (PhyEx), are well-known treatments for metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors often associated to hypogonadism. Given the trophic role of testosterone on skeletal muscle (SkM), this study was aimed at evaluating the effects of testosterone treatment on SkM metabolism and exercise performance in male rabbits with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. HFD rabbits, treated or not with testosterone (30 mg/kg/week) for 12 weeks, were compared to regular diet animals (RD). A subset of each group was exercise-trained for 12 weeks. HFD increased type-II (fast, glycolytic) and decreased type-I (slow, oxidative) muscle fibers compared to RD as evaluated by RT-PCR and histochemistry. Testosterone reverted these effects, also inducing the expression of mitochondrial respiration enzymes and normalizing HFD-induced mitochondrial cristae reduction. Moreover, testosterone significantly increased the expression of myogenic/differentiation markers and genes related to glucidic/lipid metabolism. At the end of the PhyEx protocol, when compared to RD, HFD rabbits showed a significant reduction of running distance and running time, while testosterone counteracted this effect, also decreasing lactate production. In the trained groups, muscle histology showed a significant reduction of oxidative fibers in HFD compared to RD and the positive effect of testosterone in maintaining oxidative metabolism, as also demonstrated by analyzing mitochondrial ultrastructure, succinate dehydrogenase activity and ATP production. Our results indicate that testosterone could be useful to promote oxidative muscle metabolism altered by MetS, thus improving exercise performance. Conversely, testosterone administration to otherwise eugonadal rabbits (RD) only increased muscle fiber diameter but not endurance performance.