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  • Author: Eliana P Araujo x
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Cid Pitombo, Eliana P Araújo, Cláudio T De Souza, José C Pareja, Bruno Geloneze and Lício A Velloso

The effect of visceral fat removal upon glucose homeostasis, insulin signal transduction, and serum adipokine levels in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes mellitus (DIO) was evaluated. Swiss mice were initially divided into two groups fed with regular rodent chow or with chow containing 24 g% saturated fat (DIO). DIO mice became obese and overtly diabetic after 8 weeks. DIO mice were then divided into three groups: control, sham, and visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat removal. All groups were submitted to evaluation of basal glucose and insulin levels and i.p. insulin tolerance test. Insulin signal transduction in muscle was evaluated by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot, and serum adipokine levels were determined by ELISA. DIO mice became diabetic (228 versus 115 mg/dl), hyperinulinemic (7.59 versus 3.15 ng/ml) and insulin resistant (Kitt 2.88 versus 4.97%/min) as compared with control. Visceral fat removal partially reverted all parameters (147 mg/dl glucose; 3.82 ng/ml insulin; and 4.20%/min Kitt). In addition, visceral fat removal completely reversed the impairment of insulin signal transduction through insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2 and Akt in muscle. Finally, serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased, while adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in DIO mice. After visceral fat removal the levels of adipokines returned to near control levels. The present study shows that removal of visceral fat improves insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes mellitus and these metabolic and molecular outcomes are accompanied by the restoration of adipokine levels.

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Daniela F Bertelli, Andressa Coope, Andrea M Caricilli, Patricia O Prada, Mario J Saad, Licio A Velloso and Eliana P Araujo

The 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (72k-5ptase) controls signal transduction through the catalytic dephosphorylation of the 5-position of membrane-bound phosphoinositides. The reduction of 72k-5ptase expression in the hypothalamus results in improved hypothalamic insulin signal transduction and reduction of food intake and body mass. Here, we evaluated the tissue distribution and the impact of obesity on the expression of 72k-5ptase in peripheral tissues of experimental animals. In addition, insulin signal transduction and action were determined in an animal model of obesity and insulin resistance treated with an antisense (AS) oligonucleotide that reduces 72k-5ptase expression. In lean Wistar rats, 72k-5ptase mRNA and protein are found in highest levels in heart, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue. In three distinct models of obesity, Wistar rats, Swiss mice fed on high-fat diet, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, the expression of 72k-5ptase is increased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The treatment of obese Wistar rats with an anti-72k-5ptase AS oligonucleotide results in significant reduction of 72k-5ptase catalytic activity, which is accompanied by reduced food intake and body mass and improved insulin signal transduction and action as determined by immunoblotting and clamp studies respectively. 72k-5ptase expression is increased in obesity and its AS inhibition resulted in a significant improvement in insulin signal transduction and restoration of glucose homeostasis.