The metabolic health trajectory of an individual is shaped as early as prepregnancy, during pregnancy, and lactation period. Both maternal nutrition and metabolic health status are critical factors in the programming of offspring toward an increased propensity to developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Pancreatic beta-cells, part of the endocrine islets, which are nutrient-sensitive tissues important for glucose metabolism, are primed early in life (the first 1000 days in humans) with limited plasticity later in life. This suggests the high importance of the developmental window of programming in utero and early in life. This review will focus on how changes to the maternal milieu increase offspring’s susceptibility to diabetes through changes in pancreatic beta-cell mass and function and discuss potential mechanisms by which placental-driven nutrient availability, hormones, exosomes, and immune alterations that may impact beta-cell development in utero, thereby affecting susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in adulthood.