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Jung-Min Koh, Young-Sun Lee, Chang-Hyun Byun, Eun-Ju Chang, Hyunsoo Kim, Yong Hee Kim, Hong-Hee Kim and Ghi Su Kim

Growing evidence has shown a biochemical link between increased oxidative stress and reduced bone density. Although α-lipoic acid (α-LA) has been shown to act as a thiol antioxidant, its effect on bone cells has not been determined. Using proteomic analysis, we identified six differentially expressed proteins in the conditioned media of α-LA-treated human bone marrow stromal cell line (HS-5). One of these proteins, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), was significantly up-regulated, as confirmed by immunoblotting with anti-RANKL antibody. ELISA showed that α-LA stimulated RANKL production in cellular extracts (membranous RANKL) about 5-fold and in conditioned medium (soluble RANKL) about 23-fold, but had no effect on osteoprotegerin (OPG) secretion. Despite increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio, α-LA showed a dose-dependent suppression of osteoclastogenesis, both in a coculture system of mouse bone marrow cells and osteoblasts and in a mouse bone marrow cell culture system, and reduced bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, α-LA-induced soluble RANKL was not inhibited by matrix metalloprotease inhibitors, indicating that soluble RANKL is produced by α-LA without any posttranslational processing. In contrast, α-LA had no significant effect on the proliferation and differentiation of HS-5 cells. These results suggest that α-LA suppresses osteoclastogenesis by directly inhibiting RANKL–RANK mediated signals, not by mediating cellular RANKL production. In addition, our findings indicate that α-LA-induced soluble RANKL is not produced by shedding of membranous RANKL.

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Eun Hee Koh, Ah-Ram Kim, Hyunshik Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Hye-Sun Park, Myoung Seok Ko, Mi-Ok Kim, Hyuk-Joong Kim, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Su Jung Kim, Jin Sun Oh, Chang-Yun Woo, Jung Eun Jang, Jaechan Leem, Myung Hwan Cho and Ki-Up Lee

Mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophic adipocytes can reduce adiponectin synthesis. We investigated whether 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) expression is increased in hypertrophic adipocytes and whether this is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced adiponectin synthesis. Differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes were cultured for up to 21 days. The effect of AZD6925, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, on metabolism was examined. db/db mice were administered 600 mg/kg AZD6925 daily for 4 weeks via gastric lavage. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mRNA expression levels of 11 β -H sd1 and mitochondrial biogenesis factors, adiponectin synthesis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), oxygen consumption rate and glycolysis were measured. Adipocyte hypertrophy in 3T3L1 cells exposed to a long duration of culture was associated with increased 11 β -Hsd1 mRNA expression and reduced mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis factor expression and adiponectin synthesis. These cells displayed reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis. Treatment of these cells with AZD6925 increased adiponectin synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. Inhibition of FAO by etomoxir blocked the AZD6925-induced increase in adiponectin synthesis, indicating that 11β-HSD1-mediated reductions in FAO are responsible for the reduction in adiponectin synthesis. The expression level of 11 β -Hsd1 was higher in adipose tissues of db/db mice. Administration of AZD6925 to db/db mice increased the plasma adiponectin level and adipose tissue FAO. In conclusion, increased 11β-HSD1 expression contributes to reduced mitochondrial respiration and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes.