Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author: F Gaytán x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

R Aguilar, F Antón, C Bellido, E Aguilar, and F Gaytan

Abstract

Testicular serotonin (5HT) concentrations were determined by HPLC in the testes of rats treated neonatally with oestradiol benzoate (EB) and in adult rats treated with the Leydig cell cytotoxic ethylene dimethane sulphonate (EDS). 5HT concentrations were related to mast cell numbers. EB-treated rats showed an accumulation of mast cells in the testes at 35 and 70 days of age and increased 5HT concentrations in both the interstitial fluid and the testicular capsule, whereas no increases in 5HT concentrations or in the number of mast cells were found for the ventral prostate of these animals. On the contrary, 5HT concentrations were not related to the number of Leydig cells. In EB-treated rats, in which Leydig cells were nearly absent at 35 days of age, 5HT concentrations were significantly increased. Furthermore, EDS-treated rats did not show significant changes in 5HT concentrations, in spite of the elimination of Leydig cells. These data suggest that mast cells are a major source of serotonin in the rat testis.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 15–21

Restricted access

F Gaytan, L Pinilla, J L Romero, and E Aguilar

Abstract

Neonatal and prepubertal male rats were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 5 IU/g body weight per day) on days 2–4 or 20–22. Depending on the date of treatment, different groups of rats were sacrificed at 5, 23, 30 and 100 days of age, in order to study the short-and long-term effects of the treatment with hCG on the development of the testes and sex accessory organs. Rats treated with hCG on days 2–4 showed increased number and size of foetal Leydig cells at 5 days of age. However, long-term effects include decreased numbers of adult-type Leydig cells, decreased weight of the testes and sex accessory organs, decreased basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion, and delayed balano-preputial separation. In contrast, animals treated with hCG on days 20–22 showed similar short- and long-term effects, consisting of increased number of adult-type Leydig cells and macrophages, increased weight of the testes and sex accessory organs and advanced balano-preputial separation. In adulthood, both groups showed normal reproductive function.

These results seem to indicate that the effects of hCG treatment in prepubertal rats are dependent on the type of Leydig cell stimulated, and suggest that foetal Leydig cells play a regulatory role in the early postnatal testicular development.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 142, 527–534

Restricted access

P. Garnelo, L. Pinilla, F. Gaytan, and E. Aguilar

ABSTRACT

Acute and long-term effects of neonatal and prepubertal treatments with an LH-releasing hormone agonist (LHRH-A) were studied in Wistar male rats. Animals injected with d-Ala6-d-Gly10-LHRH ethylamide (2 μg/kg per day) or vehicle from days 1 to 15 or from days 16 to 29 were killed at different ages. Treatment between days 1 and 15 induced a decrease in both pituitary FSH and LH content as well as a reduction in plasma FSH and blockade of the response to LHRH. These effects were apparent on day 16 after treatment. Basal and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone and testosterone secretion in vitro was similar in testes from male rats treated with LHRH-A or vehicle. Reduced testicular weight was observed until day 90, whereas puberty, spermatogenesis and fertility were unaffected. The decrease in plasma FSH concentrations after neonatal treatment with LHRH-A was also found in groups of animals killed on day 10 and was possibly the cause of reduced testicular weight, since treatment with FSH from day 1 to day 15 blocked the effect of LHRH-A. Likewise, treatment with LHRH-A from day 1 to day 15 also reduced FSH and LH secretion in males orchidectomized on day 1 of life.

Animals injected with LHRH-A from day 15 to day 29 exhibited, at the end of the treatment period, reduced testicular weight, and decreased pituitary gonadotrophin content and plasma FSH concentrations, whereas LH plasma concentrations were normal. In adulthood, the pituitary-testis function did not vary from normal. Our results demonstrate that: (1) administration of LHRH-A from day 1 to day 15 of life desensitized the gonadotrophs, which in turn lowered plasma gonadotrophin concentrations and caused a long-term reduction in testis weight without changes in the quality of spermatogenesis or reproductive activity in adulthood; (2) chronic treatment with LHRH-A during the neonatal period did not result in a steroidogenic lesion; and (3) administration of LHRH-A from day 15 to day 29 produced only a transient reduction in testicular weight and in spermatogenesis.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 134, 269–277

Restricted access

L. Pinilla, P. Garnelo, F. Gaytan, and E. Aguilar

ABSTRACT

Neonatal oestrogen administration to male rats permanently impaired the function of the pituitary-testicular axis possibly by inhibiting neonatal gonadotrophin secretion. To analyse the hypothalamus and/or pituitary involvement in this inhibition, pituitary responsiveness to acute stimulation with LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) was studied in vivo and in vitro in Wistar male rats injected on day 1 of age with oestradiol benzoate (OB) or olive oil. FSH and LH pituitary content and plasma concentrations were reduced in oestrogenized male rats at days 10 and 16 of age. Likewise, the in-vivo increase in gonadotrophin plasma concentrations after acute stimulation with LHRH was almost completely suppressed in 10-and 16-day-old oestrogenized males. In vitro, the increased secretion of FSH after LHRH stimulation was abolished and the LH response strongly reduced in pituitaries from oestrogenized males. Finally, the effects of neonatal oestrogenization were not abolished by treatment from day 1 to day 15 with an LHRH agonist (0·01 μg/kg per 12 h). We conclude that in male rats the effects of oestrogenization are due to both a reduction in LHRH endogenous secretion and a decrease in the pituitary responsiveness to LHRH.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 134, 279–286

Restricted access

L Pinilla, P Garnelo, M Tena-Sempere, F Gaytan, and E Aguilar

Abstract

It is well known that males injected neonatally with oestradiol or antiserum or antagonists (ANT) against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) show multiple reproductive disorders. In the present work, in males treated neonatally with GnRH-ANT, we have analysed: (1) whether the impairment of reproductive function can be blocked by simultaneous treatment with gonadotrophins, (2) the possible differences in the effects of GnRH-ANT injected before or after the proliferation of Sertoli cells which takes place between days 1 and 15 of age, and (3) the mechanism(s) for the increased FSH secretion observed in adulthood. Experimental designs included: administration of GnRH-ANT between days 1 and 16 or 15 and 30 of age, simultaneous administration of gonadotrophins and GnRH-ANT to neonatal males, and measurement of FSH secretion after orchidectomy or specific destruction of Leydig cells with ethylene dimethane sulphonate (EDS) in adult males treated neonatally with GnRH-ANT.

The principal new data presented in our studies are the following: (1) delayed puberty was observed not only in males injected neonatally with GnRH-ANT, but also in those injected with gonadotrophins or with GnRH-ANT and gonadotrophins, (2) the decreased fertility and increased FSH secretion observed in adult males treated neonatally with GnRH-ANT were normalized by simultaneous administration of GnRH-ANT and gonadotrophins, and (3) the increased FSH secretion in adult males treated neonatally with GnRH-ANT remained after EDS or orchidectomy, suggesting that mechanisms other than decreased inhibin secretion were involved in the increased secretion of FSH.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 142, 517–525

Restricted access

F Gaytan, C Bellido, C Morales, M García, N van Rooijen, and E Aguilar

Abstract

Testicular macrophages are a relevant cell type for the regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The availability of liposome technology allows in vivo manipulation of macrophages in order to analyze their role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. In this study, adult (70 days of age) and prepubertal (22 days of age) rats were injected intratesticularly with liposomes containing either dichloromethylene diphosphonate (C12MDP) to deplete testicular macrophages or muramyl tripeptide (MTP-PE) to activate them. Control rats were injected with the corresponding volumes of 0·9% NaCl. Animals were killed 10 days after treatment. Adult rats injected bilaterally or unilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed increased serum LH and testosterone concentrations, as well as increased testosterone concentrations in the testicular interstitial fluid. In unilaterally injected rats, testosterone concentrations in the interstitial fluid were higher in the macrophage-containing testes than in the contralateral, macrophage-depleted testes. Adult rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of testicular macrophages, whereas the number of Leydig cells was unchanged. Serum LH concentrations were decreased, but no changes were found in testosterone concentrations. Prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed decreased numbers of Leydig cells. However, serum LH and testosterone concentrations were increased. Otherwise, prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of macrophages and Leydig cells, as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. These data suggest that testicular macrophage-derived factors act at two different levels in the pituitary-testicular axis: first, at a central level by inhibiting LH secretion, and secondly, at a local level by stimulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 150, 57–65

Restricted access

F Gaytan, C Bellido, J L Romero, C Morales, C Reymundo, and E Aguilar

Abstract

Macrophages are a common cell type in the testicular interstitium of the rat and are morphologically and functionally related to Leydig cells. We investigated the number of macrophages and Leydig cells in long-term (24 weeks) hypophysectomized (LTHX) or sham-operated rats. LTHX rats showed a 76% decrease in the number of macrophages, whereas the number of Leydig cells was only slightly decreased (by 18%). The profile areas of both macrophages and Leydig cells were very much decreased (46% and 66% respectively).

Sham-operated and LTHX rats were treated with vehicle or human FSH and LH (hFSH/hLH; 75 IU/kg body weight per day) for 1 week. This treatment induced a 286% increase in the number of macrophages and a 32% increase in the number of Leydig cells in LTHX rats. The profile areas of macrophages and Leydig cells were also increased (212% and 184% respectively). About 80% of macrophages showed vacuolization of the cytoplasm. Gonadotrophin treatment did not induce changes in cell numbers in sham-operated animals but about 30% of macrophages showed large cytoplasmic vacuoles.

Vehicle- or hormone-treated LTHX rats were given a single injection of ethylene dimethane sulphonate (EDS) and killed 72 h later. Leydig cells were absent from the testicular interstitium of sham-operated rats but there were large numbers of dead Leydig cells (about 40% of the pre-existing population) in the testicular interstitium of LTHX rats 3 days after EDS treatment. Complete clearance of the testicular interstitium from EDS-killed Leydig cells was found in LTHX rats treated with hFSH/hLH. These results indicate that the decreased number and size and the defective function of testicular macrophages in LTHX rats can be restored by treatment with gonadotrophins.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 140, 399–407

Restricted access

F Gaytan, C Bellido, C Morales, N van Rooijen, and E Aguilar

Abstract

The Leydig cells of young hypophysectomized rats are highly sensitive to the stimulatory effects of exogenous pituitary hormones. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of testicular macrophages in the response of Leydig cells to different hormones. Male rats were hypophysectomized at 28 days of age and 10 days later they were injected intratesticularly with dichloromethylene diphosphonate-containing liposomes (right testis) to deplete testicular macrophages, and with 0·9% NaCl (left testis). One week later, the animals were treated daily with 1 IU rat GH (rGH)/rat, 5 IU recombinant human FSH (recFSH)/rat, 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)/rat, or vehicle for 7 days. The animals were killed on the day after the last injection. The animals treated with rGH showed increased body weight and increased number and size of testicular macrophages in the left testes, but no significant effects on Leydig cells were found. Treatment with recFSH induced a significant increase in testicular weight and tubular diameter in both testes. In the left testes, the number and size of macrophages were increased; the number of Leydig cells was not changed, although they showed a significantly increased cross-sectional area. This effect was abolished in the right (macrophage-depleted) testes. However, the effect of recFSH on the growth of the seminiferous tubules was not modified by the absence of macrophages. Rats treated with hCG showed increased testicular weight and serum testosterone levels, as well as an increased weight of the ventral prostate. In the left testes, the number and size of both macrophages and Leydig cells were increased. Otherwise, the number of Leydig cells was unchanged in the absence of macrophages, whereas the increase in the size of Leydig cells was partially abolished. These data indicate that testicular macrophages are needed for the response of Leydig cells to gonadotrophin treatment.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 147, 463–471

Restricted access

F Gaytán, C Bellido, C Morales, E Aguilar, and J E Sánchez-Criado

Abstract

The proliferative activity of the rat corpus luteum was studied on days 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 17, 19 and 21 of pregnancy. Proliferating cells were detected by the immunohistochemical demonstration of DNA-incorporated 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and by the presence of mitoses. Steroidogenic luteal cells showed two proliferative waves on days 12–15 and on day 21, when relatively abundant BrdU-labeled and mitotic cells were observed. These cells were clearly distinguishable from non-steroidogenic cells by their round nuclei and large polygonal cytoplasm. The proliferative activity on days 12–15 was coincident with an increase in the size of the cells and in progesterone concentrations. On the other hand, the proliferative activity of non-steroidogenic luteal cells (especially endothelial cells of the blood and lymphatic vessels) followed a different pattern. These cells intensely proliferated on days 2–3 of pregnancy and this proliferative activity was significantly higher than that observed in non-pregnant rats on metestrus and diestrus. A new proliferative wave was observed on days 12–15, in association with the increase in the proliferative activity of steroidogenic cells. The presence of both BrdU-labeled and mitotic steroidogenic luteal cells provides evidence that these cells do proliferate and that both hypertrophy and hyperplasia are involved in the increase in the parenchyma of the corpus luteum during pregnancy. Also, the results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the proliferative activity in the corpus luteum at different times during pregnancy.

Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 154, 211–217

Free access

F Gaytan, C Morales, C Bellido, R Aguilar, Y Millan, J Martin De Las Mulas, and JE Sanchez-Criado

Preovulatory surges of both prolactin (PRL) and progesterone have been suggested to be necessary for the induction of apoptosis in the regressing corpus luteum of the cyclic rat. The aim of these experiments was to study whether the administration of PRL and/or progesterone on the morning of pro-oestrus reproduces the regressive changes that happen in the cyclic corpus luteum (CL) during the transition from pro-oestrus to oestrus, and to analyse the temporal relationships between two characteristic features of structural luteolysis (luteal cell apoptosis and accumulation of macrophages). Cyclic rats (treated at 0900 h with an LHRH antagonist to block LH secretion) were injected at 1000 h with PRL and progesterone and killed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min after treatment. The number of apoptotic cells increased progressively from 60 min after treatment onward in hormone-treated rats, whereas the number of macrophages did not change throughout the period of time considered. Rats injected with PRL plus progesterone showed significantly greater numbers of apoptotic cells than those injected with PRL alone. The luteolytic effects of progesterone were in keeping with the presence of luteal endothelial cells showing progesterone receptor (PR) immunoreactivity in pro-oestrus. Treatment of rats during dioestrus and pro-oestrus with the specific antioestrogens LY117018 and RU58668 decreased the luteolytic effects of PRL and progesterone and the number of luteal endothelial cells immunostained for PR. These results strongly suggest that the preovulatory PRL surge and the preovulatory increase in progesterone together trigger structural regression of the corpus luteum. This seems to be dependent on oestrogen-driven cyclic changes in PRs in luteal endothelial cells.