UDP-galactose: glycoprotein galactosyltransferase, CMP-sialic acid: glycoprotein sialyltransferase and UDP-galactose pyrophosphatase activities were measured in the endometrium of rat uteri during the oestrous cycle. The galactosyltransferase activity started to increase at dioestrus and reached a maximum on the afternoon of pro-oestrus. The UDP-galactose pyrophosphatase activity changed in a direction opposite to that of galactosyltransferase. The sialyltransferase activity was low during metoestrus and dioestrus, but began to rise on the morning of pro-oestrus, reaching a peak on the morning of oestrus. Previously, we have shown that oestradiol administration stimulated galactosyl- and sialyltransferase and inhibited pyrophosphatase activities several-fold in the endometrium of ovariectomized rats. Progesterone prevented the oestradiol effect on the enzymes. The changes in glycosyltransferase and pyrophosphatase activities during the oestrous cycle possibly bear a direct relationship to the ovarian hormones in the rat during the normal oestrous cycle. This relationship will then be conducive to increased synthesis of glycopolymers during ovulation. Furthermore, the lag of 18 h for a maximal rise of sialyltransferase following that of galactosyltransferase is consistent with the normal sequence of glycosylation that occurs in glycoprotein secretion.