The physiological mineralisation of skeletal tissues, as well as the pathological mineralisation of soft tissues involves a fine balance between regulators that either promote or inhibit the process. In recent years, several studies have advocated a non-skeletal role for some of these mineralisation regulators in a range of human diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. This is an emerging area of interest and the functional roles and mechanisms of action of these various endocrine factors, phosphatases and phosphodiesterase’s in important pathologies are the focus of this review. Mechanistic insight of the pathways through which these acknowledged regulators of skeletal mineralisation act beyond the skeleton has the potential to identify druggable targets for commonly experienced morbidities, notably those related to metabolism and metabolic syndrome.
Fiona Roberts, Greg Markby, Scott Dillon, Colin Farquharson and Vicky E MacRae
Karla J Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nik M Morton, Vicky E MacRae and William P Cawthorn
Throughout the last decade, significant developments in cellular, molecular and mouse models have revealed major endocrine functions of the skeleton. More recent studies have evolved the interplay between bone-specific hormones, the skeleton, marrow adipose tissue, muscle and the brain. This review focuses on literature from the last decade, addressing the endocrine regulation of global energy metabolism via the skeleton. In addition, we will highlight several recent studies that further our knowledge of new endocrine functions of some organs; explore remaining unanswered questions; and, finally, we will discuss future directions for this more complex era of bone biology research.