Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been connected to beneficial effects elicited by calorie restriction. Physiological adaptation to starvation requires higher activity of SIRT1 and also the suppression of thyroid hormone (TH) action to achieve energy conservation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that those two events are correlated and that TH may be a regulator of SIRT1 expression. Forty-eight-hour fasting mice exhibited reduced serum TH and increased SIRT1 protein content in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT), and physiological thyroxine replacement prevented or attenuated the increment of SIRT1 in liver and BAT of fasted mice. Hypothyroid mice exhibited increased liver SIRT1 protein, while hyperthyroid ones showed decreased SIRT1 in liver and BAT. In the liver, decreased protein is accompanied by reduced SIRT1 activity and no alteration in its mRNA. Hyperthyroid and hypothyroid mice exhibited increases and decreases in food intake and body weight gain respectively. Food-restricted hyperthyroid animals (pair-fed to euthyroid group) exhibited liver and BAT SIRT1 protein levels intermediary between euthyroid and hyperthyroid mice fed ad libitum. Mice with TH resistance at the liver presented increased hepatic SIRT1 protein and activity, with no alteration in Sirt1 mRNA. These results suggest that TH decreases SIRT1 protein, directly and indirectly, via food ingestion control and, in the liver, this reduction involves TRβ. The SIRT1 reduction induced by TH has important implication to integrated metabolic responses to fasting, as the increase in SIRT1 protein requires the fasting-associated suppression of TH serum levels.
Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes de Souza, Lorraine Soares Oliveira, Larissa Costa Faustino, Letícia Aragão Santiago, Flavia Fonseca Bloise, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura
Marco Aurélio Liberato Costa da Veiga, Flávia Fonseca Bloise, Ricardo Henrique Costa-e-Sousa, Luana Lopes Souza, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida, Karen Jesus Oliveira and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura
We examined the acute effects of endocannabinoid, anandamide, and of synthetic cannabinoid receptor antagonist, AM251[N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], on TSH, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) secretions. Euthyroid male rats showed a 42% decrease in serum TSH, 2 h after a single i.p. injection of 0.02, but not 0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW), anandamide, accompanied by a 39% reduction in serum T4, without alteration in serum T3. At 0.5 and 1 h, these serum hormones showed no significant change. Hypothyroid rats showed a 35% reduction in serum TSH (P<0.01), 2 h after anandamide injection, which had no effect on hyperthyroid rats. In both thyroid states, no modification of serum thyroid hormones was observed. Intraperitoneal injection of 0.17 or 1.7 mg/kg BW AM251 in euthyroid rats caused, 1.5 h later, 1.7-fold or 4.3-fold increase in serum TSH respectively, without changing thyroid hormones. Stimulatory effect of 0.17 mg/kg BW AM251 and inhibitory effect of anandamide was abolished in the group injected with AM251 followed by an anandamide injection, 30 min later. Intracerebroventricular injection of 20 ng (but not 200 ng) anandamide induced a decrease in serum TSH at 60 min after injection, which tended to disappear at 120 min. Anterior pituitary explants presented significant reduction in TSH release in the presence of 10−7 M anandamide in incubation medium, which was blocked by 10−7 M AM251. In conclusion, anandamide has the ability to acutely inhibit TSH release in eu- and hypothyroid rats, acting at the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Since, in addition, the cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 increased TSH release, we suggest that endocannabinoid system has a role as negative regulator of TSH secretion.
Flavia Fonseca Bloise, Felipe Leite de Oliveira, Alberto Félix Nobrega, Rita Vasconcellos, Aline Cordeiro, Luciana Souza de Paiva, Dennis D Taub, Radovan Borojevic, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura and Valéria de Mello-Coelho
The effects of hyperthyroidism on B-cell physiology are still poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the influence of high-circulating levels of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) on bone marrow, blood, and spleen B-cell subsets, more specifically on B-cell differentiation into plasma cells, in C57BL/6 mice receiving daily injections of T3 for 14 days. As analyzed by flow cytometry, T3-treated mice exhibited increased frequencies of pre-B and immature B-cells and decreased percentages of mature B-cells in the bone marrow, accompanied by an increased frequency of blood B-cells, splenic newly formed B-cells, and total CD19+B-cells. T3 administration also promoted an increase in the size and cellularity of the spleen as well as in the white pulp areas of the organ, as evidenced by histological analyses. In addition, a decreased frequency of splenic B220+ cells correlating with an increased percentage of CD138+ plasma cells was observed in the spleen and bone marrow of T3-treated mice. Using enzyme-linked immunospot assay, an increased number of splenic immunoglobulin-secreting B-cells from T3-treated mice was detected ex vivo. Similar results were observed in mice immunized with hen egg lysozyme and aluminum adjuvant alone or together with treatment with T3. In conclusion, we provide evidence that high-circulating levels of T3 stimulate plasmacytogenesis favoring an increase in plasma cells in the bone marrow, a long-lived plasma cell survival niche. These findings indicate that a stimulatory effect on plasma cell differentiation could occur in untreated patients with Graves' disease.