Serum prolactin levels gradually increase from birth to puberty in both male and female rats, with higher levels observed in female since the first days of life. The increase in lactotroph secretion was attributed to the maturation of prolactin-inhibiting and prolactin-releasing factors; however, those mechanisms could not fully explain the gender differences observed. Prolactin secretion from isolated lactotrophs, in the absence of hypothalamic control, also increases during the first weeks of life, suggesting the involvement of intra-pituitary factors. We postulate that pituitary transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is involved in the regulation of prolactin secretion as well as in the gender differences observed at early postnatal age. Several components of the local TGFβ1 system were evaluated during postnatal development (11, 23, and 45 days) in female and male Sprague–Dawley rats. In vivo assays were performed to study local TGFβ1 activation and its impact on prolactin secretion. At day 11, female pituitaries present high levels of active TGFβ1, concomitant with the highest expression of TGFβ1 target genes and the phospho-Smad3 immunostaining in lactotrophs. The steady increase in prolactin secretion inversely correlates with active TGFβ1 levels only in females. Dopamine and estradiol induce TGFβ1 activation at day 11, in both genders, but its activation induces the inhibition of prolactin secretion only in females. Our findings demonstrate that: (1) TGFβ1 activation is regulated by dopamine and estradiol; (2) the inhibitory regulation of local TGFβ1 on prolactin secretion is gender specific; and (3) this mechanism is responsible, at least partially, for the gender differences observed being relevant during postnatal development.
Alejandra Abeledo-Machado, Pablo Anibal Pérez, María Andrea Camilletti, Erika Yanil Faraoni, Florencia Picech, Juan Pablo Petiti, Silvina Gutiérrez and Graciela Diaz-Torga
Liliana del V Sosa, Juan P Petiti, Florencia Picech, Sabrina Chumpen, Juan P Nicola, Pablo Perez, Ana De Paul, Javier Valdez-Taubas, Silvina Gutierrez and Alicia I Torres
The molecular mechanisms underlying the ERα nuclear/cytoplasmic pool that modulates pituitary cell proliferation have been widely described, but it is still not clear how ERα is targeted to the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to analyse ERα palmitoylation and the plasma membrane ERα (mERα) pool, and their participation in E2-triggered membrane-initiated signalling in normal and pituitary tumour cell growth. Cell cultures were prepared from anterior pituitaries of female Wistar rats and tumour GH3 cells, and treated with 10 nM of oestradiol (E2). The basal expression of ERα was higher in tumour GH3 than in normal pituitary cells. Full-length palmitoylated ERα was observed in normal and pituitary tumour cells, demonstrating that E2 stimulation increased both, ERα in plasma membrane and ERα and caveolin-1 interaction after short-term treatment. In addition, the Dhhc7 and Dhhc21 palmitoylases were negatively regulated after sustained stimulation of E2 for 3 h. Although the uptake of BrdU into the nucleus in normal pituitary cells was not modified by E2, a significant increase in the GH3 tumoural cell, as well as ERK1/2 activation, with this effect being mimicked by PPT, a selective antagonist of ERα. These proliferative effects were blocked by ICI 182780 and the global inhibitor of palmitoylation. These findings indicate that ERα palmitoylation modulated the mERα pool and consequently the ERK1/2 pathway, thereby contributing to pituitary tumour cell proliferation. These results suggest that the plasma membrane ERα pool might be related to the proliferative behaviour of prolactinoma and may be a marker of pituitary tumour growth.