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Ruijin Shao, Emil Egecioglu, Birgitta Weijdegård, Karin Ljungström, Charlotte Ling, Julia Fernandez-Rodriguez, and Håkan Billig

Progesterone (P4) regulates many aspects of physiological functions via two nuclear P4 receptors (PR), PRA and PRB, which are members of a structurally related nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that includes glucocorticoid receptors (GR). The regulation and cellular distribution of PR protein isoforms have been extensively studied in reproductive tissues, but this is not the case in the lung. In the present study, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, Western blotting, and immunolocalization supported the presence of PRA in the lung of female mice, with PRA protein levels significantly increased between postnatal day 7 and 12, declined at postnatal day 26, and minimal in adults when compared to postnatal day 2. The peak was temporally related to postnatal lung maturation in rodents. Immunoreactivity for PR was detected in the alveolar and bronchial epithelia. We then extended this study to examine, for the first time, the regulation of PRA protein expression in female mouse lung in vivo. Neither the increase in endogenous P4 nor treatment with exogenous P4 regulated PRA protein expression in female mouse lung. However, treatment of mice with the GR/PR antagonist RU 486, but not Org 31710 (a specific PR antagonist), significantly increased PRA protein expression in parallel to a decrease in GR protein expression. In addition, treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone led to a decrease in PRA protein expression independent of endogenous P4 levels. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis revealed that, under in vivo conditions, PRA physically interacted with GR in mouse lung. Confocal laser microscopy revealed that PRA and GR co-localized in the nuclei of alveolar epithelia cells, whereas nuclear PR and cytoplasmic GR were detected in bronchial epithelium. Taken together, our observations suggest that PRA may be an important physiological factor involved in postnatal lung development and that the regulation of PRA protein expression is not dependent on P4, but rather on functional glucocorticoid/GR signaling mediated by protein–protein interaction in the mouse lung.

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Min Hu, Yuehui Zhang, Jiaxing Feng, Xue Xu, Jiao Zhang, Wei Zhao, Xiaozhu Guo, Juan Li, Edvin Vestin, Peng Cui, Xin Li, Xiao-ke Wu, Mats Brännström, Linus R Shao, and Håkan Billig

Impaired progesterone (P4) signaling is linked to endometrial dysfunction and infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we report for the first time that elevated expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms A and B parallels increased estrogen receptor (ER) expression in PCOS-like rat uteri. The aberrant PGR-targeted gene expression in PCOS-like rats before and after implantation overlaps with dysregulated expression of Fkbp52 and Ncoa2, two genes that contribute to the development of uterine P4 resistance. In vivo and in vitro studies of the effects of metformin on the regulation of the uterine P4 signaling pathway under PCOS conditions showed that metformin directly inhibits the expression of PGR and ER along with the regulation of several genes that are targeted dependently or independently of PGR-mediated uterine implantation. Functionally, metformin treatment corrected the abnormal expression of cell-specific PGR and ER and some PGR-target genes in PCOS-like rats with implantation. Additionally, we documented how metformin contributes to the regulation of the PGR-associated MAPK/ERK/p38 signaling pathway in the PCOS-like rat uterus. Our data provide novel insights into how metformin therapy regulates uterine P4 signaling molecules under PCOS conditions.

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Yuehui Zhang, Min Hu, Wenyan Jia, Guoqi Liu, Jiao Zhang, Bing Wang, Juan Li, Peng Cui, Xin Li, Susanne Lager, Amanda Nancy Sferruzzi-Perri, Yanhua Han, Songjiang Liu, Xiaoke Wu, Mats Brännström, Linus R Shao, and Håkan Billig

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance and a high risk of miscarriage during pregnancy. Similarly, in rats, maternal exposure to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and insulin from gestational day 7.5 to 13.5 leads to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance and subsequently increased fetal loss. A variety of hormonal and metabolic stimuli are able to trigger different types of regulated cell death under physiological and pathological conditions. These include ferroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis. We hypothesized that, in rats, maternal hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance-induced fetal loss is mediated, at least in part, by changes in the ferroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis pathways in the gravid uterus and placenta. Compared with controls, we found that co-exposure to DHT and insulin led to decreased levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and glutathione, increased glutathione + glutathione disulfide and malondialdehyde, aberrant expression of ferroptosis-associated genes (Acsl4, Tfrc, Slc7a11, and Gclc), increased iron deposition and activated ERK/p38/JNK phosphorylation in the gravid uterus. In addition, we observed shrunken mitochondria with electron-dense cristae, which are key features of ferroptosis-related mitochondrial morphology, as well as increased expression of Dpp4, a mitochondria-encoded gene responsible for ferroptosis induction in the uteri of rats co-exposed to DHT and insulin. However, in the placenta, DHT and insulin exposure only partially altered the expression of ferroptosis-related markers (e.g. region-dependent GPX4, glutathione + glutathione disulfide, malondialdehyde, Gls2 and Slc7a11 mRNAs, and phosphorylated p38 levels). Moreover, we found decreased expression of Dpp4 mRNA and increased expression of Cisd1 mRNA in placentas of rats co-exposed to DHT and insulin. Further, DHT + insulin-exposed pregnant rats exhibited decreased apoptosis in the uterus and increased necroptosis in the placenta. Our findings suggest that maternal hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance causes the activation of ferroptosis in the gravid uterus and placenta, although this is mediated via different mechanisms operating at the molecular and cellular levels. Our data also suggest that apoptosis and necroptosis may play a role in coordinating or compensating for hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance-induced ferroptosis when the gravid uterus and placenta are dysfunctional.