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C Hoang-Vu, G Brabant, H Leitolf, A von zur Mühlen, H Dralle, S Schröder and W D Sierralta

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo the selective effects of a small increase in plasma TSH levels on thyroid function, proliferation and morphology. Chronically catheterized male Sprague–Dawley rats were stimulated i.v. over 5 days either with TRH (2 μg TRH in 100 μl 0·9% (w/v) NaCl (TRH-P) or the NaCl carrier alone (P), both given as pulses every 2 h. Control groups were cotreated i.v. with 10 μg thyroxine (T4)/100 g body weight per day (TRH-P+T4) starting 2 days before pulsatile stimulation. TSH plasma levels were approximately doubled by TRH-P (P≤0·001), T4 plasma levels significantly increased (P≤0·001) but tri-iodothyronine plasma levels did not change compared with treatment with P. No significant changes between groups were found in thyroid weight and in intrathyroidal iodine content, but the percentage of 5-bromo-2′-desoxyuridinelabelled thyrocytes as a marker of proliferation in TRH-P-treated animals was significantly increased over P or TRH-P+T4 (P≤0·001). Ultrastructural analysis of the thyroid evaluated by electron microscopy revealed a significant increase in the number of lysosomes (P≤0·001). The size of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in relation to the cytoplasm was significantly increased when treated with TRH-P compared with P or TRH-P+T4 (P≤0·001). Post-embedding immunogold staining revealed Tg as a major product within ER cisternae. Immunogold labelling was moderate in controls and higher densities of gold particles were obtained in TRH-P-treated animals (P≤0·001). In conclusion, short-term pulsatile TRH stimulation increasing the plasma levels of immunoreactive TSH only twofold is capable of inducing hypertrophy of the thyrocytes by gross ultrastructural changes which are paralleled by an increase in circulating T4. These data underscore the dominant role of TSH on thyroid ultrastructure within the narrow boundaries of normal physiological regulation.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 339–348

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W Karges, K Jostarndt, S Maier, A Flemming, M Weitz, A Wissmann, B Feldmann, H Dralle, P Wagner and BO Boehm

Germ line mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) tumour suppressor gene cause MEN1, a rare familial tumour syndrome associated with parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma and hyperparathyroidism (HP). Here we investigated the role of the MEN1 gene in isolated sporadic and familial HP. Using RT-PCR single-strand conformational polymorphism screening, somatic (but not germ line) mutations of the MEN1 coding sequence were identified in 6 of 31 (19.3%) adenomas from patients with sporadic primary HP, but none in patients (n=16) with secondary HP due to chronic renal failure. MEN1 mutations were accompanied by a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the MEN1 locus on chromosome 11q13 in the adenomas as detected by microsatellite analysis. No DNA sequence divergence within the 5' region of the MEN1 gene, containing the putative MEN1 promoter, was detectable in HP adenomas. Clinical characteristics were not different in HP patients with or without MEN1 mutation. Heterozygous MEN1 gene polymorphisms were identified in 9.6% and 25% of patients with primary and secondary HP respectively. In a large kindred with familial isolated familial HP, MEN1 germ line mutation 249 del4 and LOH was associated with the HP phenotype and a predisposition to non-endocrine malignancies. We suggest that the bi-allelic somatic loss of MEN1 wild-type gene expression is involved in the pathogenesis of a clinically yet undefined subset of sporadic primary HP adenomas. MEN1 genotyping may further help define the familial hyperparathyroidism-MEN1 disease complex, but it seems dispensable in sporadic primary HP.