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H. Sasano, K. Fukushima, I. Sasaki, S. Matsuno, H. Nagura and Z. S. Krozowski

ABSTRACT

Using a polyclonal antibody against a synthetic fusion protein corresponding to 167 amino acids of the N-terminal region of the human renal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), an immunohistochemical study was performed to investigate the intraglandular and intracellular localization of the receptor in human kidney, salivary gland, pancreas, mammary gland and sweat gland both at the light and electron microscopic levels. In the kidney, immunoreactivity was observed in distal convoluted tubules, branches of Henle's loop, and collecting tubules in the renal cortex, and papillary and Henle's loops' ducts in the renal medulla. No significant differences in the distribution of immunoreactivity were observed using different fixatives (10% neutral formalin, 100% methanol, 4% paraformaldehyde, PLP (periodate–lysine–2% paraformaldehyde) solution and Zamboni solution) and processing methods (paraffin embedding and frozen sectioning). Immunoreactivity in the kidney was observed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, with cytoplasmic staining predominant, regardless of the methods of tissue preparation. Immunoelectron microscopy, employing a pre-embedding method, demonstrated the presence of immunoreaction precipitates in nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, perinuclear cisternae, free cytoplasm and cell membranes. In nuclei, immunoreactivity was observed in euchromatin but not in heterochromatin, which is consistent with an association of MR with specific DNA regulatory elements located in transcriptionally active euchromatin. In other organs, MR was expressed in cells of the excretory ductal system where mineralocorticoids are known to play a role in electrolyte homeostasis.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 132, 305–310

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H Tokuda, O Kozawa, M Niwa, H Matsuno, K Kato and T Uematsu

We investigated the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the induction of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and HSP70, and the mechanism behind the induction in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PGE2 time-dependently increased the level of HSP27 without affecting the level of HSP70. PGE2 stimulated the accumulation of HSP27 dose-dependently in the range between 10 nM and 10 microM. PGE2 stimulated the increase in the level of the mRNA for HSP27. Staurosporine and calphostin C, inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), suppressed the PGE2-induced HSP27 accumulation. The effect of PGE2 on HSP27 accumulation was reduced in the PKC down-regulated cells. BAPTA/AM, a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, or TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, reduced the accumulation of HSP27 induced by PGE2. Dibutyryl cAMP had little effect on the basal level of HSP27. PGE2 induced the phosphorylation of both p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and p38 MAP kinase. PD98059 and U-0126, inhibitors of the upstream kinase of p44/p42 MAP kinase, reduced the accumulation of HSP27 induced by PGE2. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, suppressed the HSP27 accumulation induced by PGE2. U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, and calphostin C reduced the PGE2-induced phosphorylation of both p44/p42 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase. These results indicate that PGE2 stimulates the induction of HSP27 through PKC-dependent activations of both p44/p42 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase in osteoblasts.