The pulsatile secretion patterns of GH were investigated in seven beagle bitches by collecting blood samples every 10 min for 6 h during euthyroidism and 1.5 years after induction of primary hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was induced by surgical removal of the thyroid gland and subsequent destruction of any remnant thyroid tissue by oral administration of sodium [(131)I]iodide. Some of the physical changes observed in the dogs with primary hypothyroidism mimicked those of acromegaly. During both euthyroidism and hypothyroidism GH was secreted in a pulsatile fashion. The mean (+/-s.e.m. ) basal plasma GH concentration was significantly higher (P=0.003) in the hypothyroid state (4.1+/-1.6 microg/l) than in the euthyroid state (1.2+/-0.4 microg/l). Likewise, the mean area under the curve (AUC) for GH above the zero-level during hypothyroidism (27.0+/-10.0 microg/lx6 h) was significantly higher (P=0.004) than that during euthyroidism (11.7+/-2.0 microg/l x 6 h). The mean AUC for GH above the baseline was significantly lower (P=0.008) during hypothyroidism (2.4+/-0.8 microg/l x 6 h) than during euthyroidism (4.5+/-1.8 microg/lx6 h), whereas there was no significant difference in GH pulse frequency. The mean plasma IGF-I level was significantly higher (P<0.01) in the hypothyroid state (169+/-45 microg/l) than in the euthyroid (97+/-15 microg/l). The results of this study demonstrate that primary hypothyroidism in dogs is associated with elevated basal GH secretion and less GH secreted in pulses. This elevated GH secretion has endocrine significance as illustrated by elevated plasma IGF-I levels and some physical changes mimicking acromegaly. It is discussed that the increased GH release in hypothyroid dogs may be the result of the absence of a response element for thyroid hormone within the canine pituitary GH gene and alterations in supra-pituitary regulation.
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WM Lee, M Diaz-Espineira, JA Mol, A Rijnberk, and HS Kooistra
TY Tai, JY Lu, CL Chen, MY Lai, PJ Chen, JH Kao, CZ Lee, HS Lee, LM Chuang, and YM Jeng
This study aimed at elucidating the effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha on glucose metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infections. Twenty-eight biopsy-proven patients with chronic hepatitis B (ten cases) and hepatitis C (18 cases) were given IFN-alpha for a total of 24 weeks. The patients received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucagon stimulation test, tests for type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies and an insulin suppression test before and after IFN-alpha therapy. Ten of the 28 patients responded to IFN-alpha therapy. Steady-state plasma glucose of the insulin suppression test decreased significantly in responders (13.32+/-1.48 (S.E.M.) vs 11.33+/-1.19 mmol/l, P=0.0501) but not in non-responders (12.29+/-1.24 vs 11.11+/-0.99 mmol/l, P=0.2110) immediately after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. In the oral glucose tolerance test, no significant difference was observed in plasma glucose in either responders (10.17+/-0.23 vs 10.03+/-0.22 mmol/l) or non-responders (10.11+/-0.22 vs 9.97+/-0.21 mmol/l) 3 Months after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. However, significant differences were noted in C-peptide in both responders (2.90+/-0.13 vs 2.20+/-0.09 nmol/l, P=0.0040) and non-responders (2.45+/-0.11 vs 2.22+/-0.08 nmol/l, P=0.0287) before vs after treatment. The changes of C-peptide in an OGTT between responders and non-responders were also significantly different (P=0.0028), with responders reporting a greater reduction in C-peptide. No case developed autoantibodies during the treatment. In patients who were successfully treated with IFN-alpha, insulin sensitivity improved and their plasma glucose stayed at the same level without secreting as much insulin from islet beta-cells.
HJ Kim, MS Kim, YJ Park, SW Kim, DJ Park, KS Park, SY Kim, BY Cho, HK Lee, HW Jung, DH Han, HS Lee, and JG Chi
The reported frequencies of Gs alpha mutations (gsp mutations) in growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are variable (ranging from 4.4 to 43%), and the presence of these mutations in the other pituitary adenomas is still a matter of controversy. Previous clinical and biochemical analyses of patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and gsp mutations produced conflicting results and did not demonstrate obvious characteristics. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of gsp mutations in Korean patients with pituitary adenomas and elucidated the characteristics of these patients. Forty-four GH-secreting adenomas, 7 prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas and 32 clinically non-functioning adenomas were examined for the presence of point mutations in codon 201 and 227 of the Gs alpha gene using a nested PCR and direct sequencing of DNA extracted from fresh tissue or paraffin-embedded pituitary adenoma samples. Seven of the 44 GH-secreting pituitary adenomas had point mutations at codon 201 or 227; of these, five mutations were in codon 201 and two were in codon 227. In patients with gsp mutations, mean tumor size was significantly smaller than in patients without gsp mutations (15.9+/-8.7 mm vs. 24.9+/-14.9 mm, P<0.05). Age, sex, basal GH levels, GH response to oral glucose loading, GH response to octreotide and surgical outcome were not different in the two groups. One of the 32 clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas had a point mutation at codon 201; none of the seven prolactinomas had these mutations. These results show that gsp mutations are not rare in Korean acromegalic patients and mean tumor size is significantly smaller in acromegalic patients with gsp mutations. Our results also confirm the low frequency of gsp mutations in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas and the absence of gsp mutations in prolactinoma.