In this study, the effect of high glucose (HG) on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) proliferation and its relationship with cyclins and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. Mouse EPCs were isolated from bone marrow using a magnetic activated cell-sorting system and cultured in the presence or absence of HG (30 mmol/l). We found that in the early stage of incubation (3 days), HG promoted cell proliferation, and increased the expressions of cdk2 and cyclin E, while in the late stage of culture (7 days) it inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the expressions of cdk2, cyclin E, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Moreover, on the third day after incubation, HG significantly inhibited the apoptosis of EPCs, while in the late stage it markedly activated caspase-3 and promoted apoptosis. ROS generation in cells and maleic dialdehyde level in medium were significantly increased in HG group on the seventh day, whereas the expressions of superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels decreased. Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, significantly inhibited ROS production in EPCs and partially reversed the HG-mediated inhibition of EPCs proliferation on the seventh day. We hypothesize that in the HG environment, the biphasic response of EPC proliferation may be related to the generation of ROS, which causes modulation of cyclins and cell cycle effect.
Wei Zhang, Xin-Hong Wang, Si-Feng Chen, Guo-Ping Zhang, Ning Lu, Ren-Ming Hu and Hui-Ming Jin
Wang-Yang Xu, Yan Shen, Houbao Zhu, Junhui Gao, Chen Zhang, Lingyun Tang, Shun-Yuan Lu, Chun-Ling Shen, Hong-Xin Zhang, Ziwei Li, Peng Meng, Ying-Han Wan, Jian Fei and Zhu-Gang Wang
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both complicated endocrine disorders resulting from an interaction between multiple predisposing genes and environmental triggers, while diet and exercise have key influence on metabolic disorders. Previous reports demonstrated that 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA), an intermediate metabolite of lysine metabolism, could modulate insulin secretion and predict T2D, suggesting the role of 2-AAA in glycolipid metabolism. Here, we showed that treatment of diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice with 2-AAA significantly reduced body weight, decreased fat accumulation and lowered fasting glucose. Furthermore, Dhtkd1−/− mice, in which the substrate of DHTKD1 2-AAA increased to a significant high level, were resistant to DIO and obesity-related insulin resistance. Further study showed that 2-AAA induced higher energy expenditure due to increased adipocyte thermogenesis via upregulating PGC1α and UCP1 mediated by β3AR activation, and stimulated lipolysis depending on enhanced expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) through activating β3AR signaling. Moreover, 2-AAA could alleviate the diabetic symptoms of db/db mice. Our data showed that 2-AAA played an important role in regulating glycolipid metabolism independent of diet and exercise, implying that improving the level of 2-AAA in vivo could be developed as a strategy in the treatment of obesity or diabetes.