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Tsun-Jui Liu, Hui-Chin Lai, Chih-Tai Ting and Ping H Wang

Signaling pathways of IGF-I and insulin receptors play important roles in the regulation of myocardial function. FOXO1 is a member of the forkhead transcriptional factor family, but how insulin and IGF-I receptor signaling regulate FOXO1 in cardiomyocytes is not well understood. This study was carried out to elucidate how IGF-I and insulin receptor signaling modulate FOXO1 in cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, activation of IGF-I receptor and insulin receptor lead to rapid phosphorylation of FOXO1. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway suppressed the effect of insulin and IGF-I on FOXO1 phosphorylation. Prolonged incubation with IGF-I increased ubiquitination of FOXO1 and down-regulated the abundance of FOXO1 proteins, which suggested that IGF-I might modulate FOXO1 degradation. To explore whether FOXO1 could modulate IGF-I and insulin signaling, a constitutively active FOXO1 was overexpressed in cardiomyocytes. The abundance of insulin receptor and IGF-I receptor was significantly upregulated in the cells overexpressing active FOXO1, accompanied by increased receptor phosphorylation upon insulin/IGF-I stimulation. Interestingly, overexpression of constitutively active FOXO1 also led to activation of MEK and Akt phosphorylation. IGF-I-stimulated MEK and Akt phosphorylation were augmented byoverexpression of constitutively active FOXO1. These findings indicate bidirectional regulation of insulin/IGF-I receptor signaling and FOXO1 in cardiomyocytes. FOXO1 may provide feedback control through upregulation of insulin and IGF-I receptor signaling.

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Harn-Shen Chen, Jia Jia, Hou-Fen Su, Hong-Da Lin, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin, Jia-Ying Yang, Hui-Chin Lai, Ruben Mestril and Ping H Wang

The 70 kDa heat shock protein family plays important cardiac protective roles against myocardial injuries. Reduced myocardial protection is a common feature of diabetic myocardium. This study was carried out to define the changes in the 70 kDa heat shock protein family in the myocardium in the of streptozotocin-diabetes rats, and to explore the mechanisms through which diabetes alters the abundance of Hsp70/Hsc70 in cardiac muscle. In the diabetic myocardium, the abundance of Hsc70 was significantly reduced. The abundance of Hsp70 was low in cardiac muscle and was not induced in the diabetic myocardium. Unlike Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsc70 did not augment insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling in cardiac muscle cells. In cultured cardiomyocytes, insulin directly increased the abundance of Hsc70, whereas insulin could not modulate Hsp70. Treating diabetic rats with insulin restored myocardial Hsc70 level, but phlorizin treatment failed to restore myocardial Hsc70. These in vivo and in vitro studies showed that downregulation of Hsc70 in diabetic myocardium was secondary to insulin deficiency. Thus, insulin played a major role in maintaining adequate expression of Hsc70 in cardiac muscle.