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Hui-Fang Wang, Qing-Qing Yu, Rui-Fang Zheng and Ming Xu

Cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with vascular remodeling in the arteries. Perivascular sympathetic neurons release an abundance of trophic factors to regulate vascular function via a paracrine signaling. Netrin-1, a diffusible protein that can be secreted outside the cell, is one of common signals of ‘conversation’ between nerve and vessel. The present study investigated whether netrin-1 is a novel modulator of sympathetic neurons paracrine signaling and played a critical role in vascular adventitial remodeling under T2DM. Vascular adventitial remodeling was observed in adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) responding to netrin-1 deficiency in the supernatant from primary rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons, shown as AFs proliferation, migration, and collagen deposition. Conditioned medium from the high glucose (HG)-treated SCG neurons contributed to AFs remodeling, which was effectively alleviated by exogenous netrin-1 supplementation. Further, it was found that uncoordinated-5-B (Unc5b) was mainly expressed in AFs among netrin-1 specific receptors. Treatment of netrin-1 inhibited H2O2 production derived from NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) through the UNC5b/CAMP/PKA signal pathway in AFs remodeling. In vivo, aorta adventitial remodeling was accompanied with the downregulation of netrin-1 in the perivascular sympathetic nerve in T2DM rats. Such abnormalities were restored by netrin-1 intervention, which was associated with the inhibition of NOX4 expression in the aorta adventitia. In conclusion, netrin-1 is a novel modulator of sympathetic neurons paracrine signaling to maintain AFs function. Vascular adventitial remodeling was aggravated by sympathetic neurons paracrine signaling under hyperglycemia, which was ameliorated by netrin-1 treatment through the UNC5b/CAMP/PKA/NOX4 pathway.

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Shu-Fang Xia, Xiao-Mei Duan, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Li-Mei Chen, Yan-Jun Kang, Peng Wang, Xue Tang, Yong-Hui Shi and Guo-Wei Le

The study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of hepatic microRNAs (miRs) in regulating local thyroid hormone (TH) action and ultimately different propensities to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. When obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) mice were fed HFD for 7 weeks, OP mice showed apparent hepatic steatosis, with significantly higher body weight and lower hepatic TH receptor b (TRb) expression and type 1 deiodinase (DIO1) activity than OR mice. Next-generation sequencing technology revealed that 13 miRs in liver were dysregulated between the two phenotypes, of which 8 miRs were predicted to target on Dio1 or TRb. When mice were fed for 17 weeks, OR mice had mild hepatic steatosis and increased Dio1 and TRb expression than OP mice, with downregulation of T3 target genes (including Srebp1c, Acc1, Scd1 and Fasn) and upregulation of Cpt1α, Atp5c1, Cox7c and Cyp7a1. A stem-loop qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of miR-383, miR-34a and miR-146b were inversely correlated with those of DIO1 or TRb. Down-regulated expression of miR-383 or miR-146b by miR-383 inhibitor (anti-miR-383) or miR-146b inhibitor (anti-miR-146b) in free fatty acid-treated primary mouse hepatocytes led to increased DIO1 and TRb expressions, respectively, and subsequently decreased cellular lipid accumulation, while miR-34a inhibitor (anti-miR-34a) transfection had on effects on TRb expression. Luciferase reporter assay illustrated that miR-146b could directly target TRb 3′untranslated region (3′UTR). These findings suggested that miR-383 and miR-146b might play critical roles in different propensities to diet-induced obesity via targeting on Dio1 and TRb, respectively.