Obesity is strongly linked to male infertility. Apoptotic inflammatory response caused by oxidative stress in testicular spermatogenic cells is one of the important causes of obesity-related male infertility. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) as a bioactive peptide secreted by the pituitary gland, has a powerful triple role of anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation, and is involved in male reproduction regulation, but the specific mechanism remains unknown. The purpose of the current study is to explore the role of PACAP in obesity-related male infertility. In cell-level experiments, Mouse spermatocytes (GC-2) were treated with palmitate (PA) to establish an high-fat injury cell model in vitro and then treated with PACAP. In animal-level experiments, C57BL/6 male mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and then treated with PACAP. The cell mechanism studies showed that PACAP selectively binds to the PAC1 receptor to attenuate palmitic acid-induced mouse spermatogenic cell (GC-2) oxidative damage and apoptotic inflammatory response via the PKA/ERK/Nrf2 signaling axis. However, this mechanism was inhibited in GC-2 cells inhibiting the activity of Nrf2. The animal experiment studies showed that PACAP treatment ameliorated obesity characteristics, including body weight, epididymal adipose weight, testes/body weight, serum lipids levels, and reproductive hormone levels in vivo. Additionally, PACAP was shown to improve the reproductive function of the obese mice, which was characterized by improved testis morphology and sperm parameters via Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. These beneficial effects of PACAP were abolished in obese mice with testis-specific knockdown of Nrf2.
Wailan Shan, Shiyin Lu, Biqian Ou, Jia Feng, Zixian Wang, Huixian Li, Xiaohua Lu, and Ma Yi
Chunxiao Qi, Xiaoming Ji, Guoliang Zhang, Yunxiao Kang, Yuanxiang Huang, Rui Cui, Shuangcheng Li, Huixian Cui, and Geming Shi
The purpose of present study was to infer the potential effects of testosterone increase in some male-based childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Tourette syndrome. Thus, the influence of early postnatal androgen exposure upon the neurobehaviors and its possible neural basis were investigated in the study. Male pup rats received consecutive 14-day testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneous injection from postnatal day (PND) 7. The TP treatment produced the hyperactive motor behavior and grooming behavior as well as the increased levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the mesodopaminergic system and the elevated levels of serotonin in the nucleus accumbens, without affecting the levels of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine and histamine in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of PND21 and PND49 rats. Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol was administered to the early postnatal TP-exposed PND21 and PND49 male rats 30 min prior to open field test. Haloperidol significantly ameliorated the motor behavioral and grooming behavioral defects induced by early postnatal TP exposure. The results demonstrated that early postnatal androgen exposure significantly disturbed the brain activity of developing male rats via enhancing the mesodopaminergic activity. It was suggested that abnormal increments of testosterone levels during the early postnatal development might be a potential risk factor for the incidence of some male-based childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders by affecting the mesodopaminergic system.