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  • Author: Inge Depoortere x
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Sandra Steensels, Matthias Lannoo, Bert Avau, Jorien Laermans, Laurien Vancleef, Ricard Farré, Kristin Verbeke and Inge Depoortere

Taste receptors coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients to regulate gut hormone release. During Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, the altered nutrient flow to more distal regions can affect gustducin-mediated gut hormone release and hence energy and glucose homeostasis. We studied the role of gustducin-mediated signaling in the metabolic improvements and intestinal adaptations along the gut after RYGB surgery in wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin−/− (α-gust −/−) mice. RYGB surgery decreased body weight in WT and α-gust −/− mice, whereas food intake was only decreased in WT mice. Pair-feeding to the RYGB group improved glucose homeostasis to a similar extent in WT mice. GLP1 levels were increased in both genotypes, PYY levels in α-gust −/− mice and octanoyl ghrelin levels were not affected after RYGB surgery. In WT mice, nutrients act via α-gustducin to increase L-cell differentiation (foregut) and L-cell number (foregut and hindgut) in a region-dependent manner. In α-gust −/− mice, the effect on gut hormone levels is probably tuned via increased peptide sensor and glucose transporter expression in the Roux limb and increased caecal butyrate and propionate levels in the hindgut that activate free fatty acid receptors. Finally, signaling via α-gustducin plays a role in the increased ion transport of the foregut but not in the improvement in colonic barrier function. In conclusion, RYGB surgery decreased body weight in both WT and α-gust −/− mice. Elevated plasma GLP1 and PYY levels might mediate this effect, although α-gustducin differentially affects several regulatory systems in the foregut and hindgut, tuning gut hormone release.

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Anneleen Segers, Louis Desmet, Shu Sun, Kristin Verbeke, Jan Tack and Inge Depoortere

The known crosstalk between short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and the circadian clock is tightly intertwined with feeding time. We aimed to investigate the role of the core clock gene Bmal1 and feeding time in the diurnal rhythms in plasma and caecal SCFAs levels and in their effect on the release of the hunger hormone ghrelin in the stomach and colon. WT, Bmal1-/- (ad libitum fed) and night-time-restricted-fed (RF)-Bmal1-/-- littermates were sacrificed at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 4 and 16. SCFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. To investigate the effect of SCFAs on ghrelin release, stomach and colonic full-thickness strips were incubated with Krebs or a SCFA mix mimicking plasma or caecal concentrations, after which octanoyl ghrelin release was measured by radioimmunoassay. Diurnal rhythms in caecal and plasma SCFAs oscillated in phase but rhythmic changes were abolished in Bmal1-/- mice. RF of Bmal1-/- mice restored fluctuations in caecal SCFAs. Plasma SCFA concentrations failed to affect gastric ghrelin release. The effect of caecal SCFA concentrations on colonic ghrelin release was rhythmic (inhibition at ZT 4, no effect at ZT 16). In Bmal1-/- mice, the inhibitory effect of SCFAs at ZT 4 was abolished. RF Bmal1-/- mice restored the inhibitory effect and increased colonic Clock expression. To conclude, diurnal fluctuations in caecal SCFAs and the effect of SCFAs on colonic ghrelin release are regulated by feeding time, independent of the core clock gene BMAL1. However, local entrainment of other clock genes might contribute to the observed effects.