The present study investigated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in response to stress in adult male rats submitted to pituitary stalk compression (PSC) or sham operation. Animals received water or oral salt loading (2% NaCl) for one or eight days before the day of the experiment. On the 14th day post-surgery rats were killed under basal conditions or after 15 min immobilization stress. In the PSC group urine output increased significantly and plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels failed to respond to osmotic stimuli. Short-term salt load induced a significant increase in AVP levels in the sham-operated group. The PSC group presented higher adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels compared with sham-operated rats, both in water intake and salt load conditions. Immobilization stress induced a similar increase in plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations in sham-operated and PSC groups under water intake. However, long-term salt load blunted the ACTH and corticosterone responses to immobilization stress in sham-operated rats. PSC rats submitted to short- and long-term salt loading presented no changes in ACTH and corticosterone levels after immobilization. Immobilization stress caused neither AVP responses nor plasma osmolality changes in sham and PSC groups. There was no difference in median eminence AVP content among all groups. In conclusion, the high ACTH and corticosterone levels found in PSC rats under water intake and salt loading conditions suggest an up-regulation of the HPA axis, with a preserved adaptive mechanism to chronic stress.
PC Elias, LL Elias, M Castro, J Antunes-Rodrigues and AC Moreira
G Almeida-Pereira, T Vilhena-Franco, R Coletti, S Q Cognuck, H V P Silva, L L K Elias and J Antunes-Rodrigues
17β-Estradiol (E2) has been shown to modulate the renin–angiotensin system in hydromineral and blood pressure homeostasis mainly by attenuating angiotensin II (ANGII) actions. However, the cellular mechanisms of the interaction between E2 and angiotensin II (ANGII) and its physiological role are largely unknown. The present experiments were performed to better understand the interaction between ANGII and E2 in body fluid control in female ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The present results are the first to demonstrate that PKC/p38 MAPK signaling is involved in ANGII-induced water and sodium intake and oxytocin (OT) secretion in OVX rats. In addition, previous data from our group revealed that the ANGII-induced vasopressin (AVP) secretion requires ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, taken together, the present observations support a novel concept that distinct intracellular ANGII signaling gives rise to distinct neurohypophyseal hormone release. Furthermore, the results show that E2 attenuates p38 MAPK phosphorylation in response to ANGII but not PKC activity in the hypothalamus and the lamina terminalis, suggesting that E2 modulates ANGII effects through the attenuation of the MAPK pathway. In conclusion, this work contributes to the further understanding of the interaction between E2 and ANGII signaling in hydromineral homeostasis, as well as it contributes to further elucidate the physiological relevance of PKC/p38 MAPK signaling on the fluid intake and neurohypophyseal release induced by ANGII.