The aims of this study on porcine ovarian granulosa cells were to examine the effect of GH on oxytocin (OT), IGF-I and IGF-I receptors, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), progesterone and prostaglandin E (PGE), as well as to determine whether IGF-I and/or OT may be mediators of GH action. The cells were cultured either with porcine GH (pGH) (1 ng/ml to 10 microg/ml or 100 ng/ml only), antiserum against IGF-I (0.1%), antiserum against OT (0.1%) or a combination of GH (10 ng/ml) with antiserum against IGF-I or antiserum against OT (0.1%). The secretion of IGF-I, OT, IGFBP-3, progesterone and PGE was determined using RIA/IRMA, whilst the IGF-I binding sites were measured using a radioreceptor assay. It was observed that pGH increased the secretion of IGF-I and the abundance of IGF-I binding sites in granulosa cells. Furthermore, GH inhibited OT release, stimulated progesterone and PGE output, but had no significant effect on IGFBP-3 secretion. Immunoneutralization of IGF-I by antiserum against IGF-I inhibited PGE secretion, but it did not influence progesterone or IGFBP-3 secretion. Binding of OT by antiserum suppressed IGFBP-3, PGE, but not progesterone secretion. Neither immunoneutralization of IGF-I nor OT substantially prevented the effects of GH on progesterone, IGFBP and PGE. These observations demonstrate the involvement of GH, IGF-I and OT in the control of porcine ovarian secretory activity and the ability of GH to regulate IGF-I and OT production and IGF-I reception. Nevertheless, lack of correlation between the effects of GH, antiserum against IGF-I and antiserum against OT, as well as the inability of blockade of IGF-I or OT to prevent the effects of GH, suggests that IGF-I and OT, despite their dependence on GH, do not mediate GH action on ovarian cells.
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AV Sirotkin, AV Makarevich, HB Kwon, J Kotwica, J Bulla, and L Hetenyi
A V Sirotkin, P Sanislo, H-J Schaeffer, I Florkovičová, J Kotwica, J Bulla, and L Hetényi
Thrombopoietin (TPO) is known to be involved in megakariocytopoesis, but its role in the control of ovarian function is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether TPO can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of ovarian cells, to identify possible intracellular mediators of TPO action, especially protein kinase A (PKA), and to define their interrelationships within ovarian cells. We investigated the effect of TPO treatment (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) on the following characteristics of cultured porcine ovarian follicles, determined using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, RIA and ELISA: the expression of intracellular peptides associated with proliferation (PCNA), apoptosis (Bax), tyrosine kinase (TK, phosphotyrosine), Cdc2/p34 kinase, PKA and the transcription factor CREB-1, and the secretion of progesterone, androstenedione, estradiol-17β, oxytocin, inhibin A, inhibin B, IGF-I, transforming growth factor-2β (TGF-2β) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). The involvement of PKA-dependent pathways was examined by evaluating the effect of a PKA blocker (KT5720, 1 μg/ml), either alone or in combination with TPO, on the parameters listed above.
A TPO-induced increase in expression of PCNA, Bax, PKA, TK, Cdc2/p34 and CREB was observed. Furthermore, TPO was able to inhibit androstenedione, estradiol, TGF-2β and IGFBP-3 secretion, and to stimulate oxytocin, inhibin A, inhibin B and IGF-I secretion. Progesterone secretion was not stimulated. The PKA blocker KT5720, when given alone, reduced the expression of Bax and TGF-2β, augmented the expression of PKA, CREB and oxytocin, but did not influence the secretion of progesterone, androstenedione, estradiol, IGFBP-3, inhibins A and B or IGF-I. When given together with TPO, the PKA blocker prevented or reversed the action of TPO on PKA, CREB, androstenedione, estradiol, IGFBP-3, oxytocin, but not its effect on Bax, TGF-2β or inhibin B. On the other hand, treatment with KT5720 augmented the effect of TPO on progesterone, inhibin A and IGF-I.
These results provide the first evidence that TPO may be a potent regulator of ovarian function (e.g. proliferation, apoptosis and the secretion of peptide hormones, steroids, growth factors and growth factor-binding protein, as well as of the expression of some intracellular messengers). Furthermore, they demonstrated the importance of PKA in controlling these functions and in mediating the effects of TPO on ovarian cells. It remains possible that other (TK- and Cdc2/p34-dependent) intracellular mechanisms are also involved in mediating TPO action on the ovary.