We have used mRNA differential display to compare gene expression in normal and GH receptor-deficient dwarf chickens, and report here the characterization of one differentially expressed gene, which shows significant sequence identity to the sulfotransferase gene family. Partial cDNA clones were isolated from a chicken liver cDNA library and an additional sequence was obtained using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. A complete cDNA probe hybridizes to three transcripts (2.4, 2.0 and 1.45 kb) on Northern blots of chicken liver RNA, which differ in the length of the 3' untranslated region. All three transcripts are expressed at higher levels in normal vs dwarf chickens, as expected for a GH-regulated gene. The expression of this sulfotransferase mRNA was also detected in skeletal muscle, but not other tissues. The administration of GH to chickens increased the hepatic expression within 1 h, suggesting this sulfotransferase could be directly regulated by GH. Sulfotransferase activity, using estradiol or corticosterone as substrate, is detected in cells transfected with an expression vector containing the full-length cDNA. The sequence of this sulfotransferase does not show significant similarity with any subfamily of the sulfotransferases and its endogenous substrate is presently unknown. However, we speculate that GH activation of sulfotransferase activity could play a role in reducing concentrations of growth-antagonistic steroid hormones in GH target tissues. These results demonstrate the usefulness of differential display in this model system to identify genes that play a role in mediating GH action.
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H Cao, SK Agarwal, and J Burnside
Z.-D. Cao, M. A. Jones, and M. J. K. Harper
The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of sexual steroid receptor concentration and cytosol to nucleus translocation in the rabbit uterus. The animals were injected s.c. with indomethacin (10 mg/kg) twice daily on days 5 and 6 and on the morning of day 7 of pregnancy or pseudopregnancy and killed 2 h after the last injection. The indomethacin treatment did not change progesterone and oestradiol serum concentrations compared with animals injected with vehicle only. No differences were observed either in progesterone receptor or oestradiol (pregnant animals only) receptor concentration and intracellular distribution in endometria of indomethacin-treated or control animals. In an extended experiment indomethacin given to oestrogen-pretreated ovariectomized rabbits did not inhibit the nuclear progesterone receptor accumulation induced by a single progesterone injection. These results suggest that there is no direct relationship between prostaglandins and sexual steroid receptors in the rabbit uterus.
J. Endocr. (1985) 107, 197–203
Y Yang, J Cao, W Xiong, J Zhang, Q Zhou, H Wei, C Liang, J Deng, T Li, S Yang, and L Xu
It has been documented that stress or glucocorticoids have conflicting effects on memory under different conditions. However, it is not fully understood why stress can either impair or enhance memory. Here, we have examined the performance of six age groups of Wistar rats in a water maze spatial task to evaluate the effects of stress under different conditions. We found that the impairment or enhancement effect of an 'elevated platform' (EP) stress on memory was dependent on previous stress experience and on age. EP stress impaired memory retrieval in water maze naive animals, but enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval in young water maze stress-experienced animals. Furthermore, exogenously applied corticosterone or foot shock stress before water maze training prevented the impairment of memory retrieval that should be induced by treatment with corticosterone or foot shock before the 'probe trial'. Again, memory retrieval was enhanced in young animals under these conditions, and this enhancement can be prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU 38486. Thus, glucocorticoid receptor activation not only induced impairment of memory but also increased the capacity of young animals to overcome a later stress. The present findings suggest that the effect of stress on memory can be switched from impairment to enhancement dependent on both stress experience and age.