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AV Sirotkin, AV Makarevich, HB Kwon, J Kotwica, J Bulla, and L Hetenyi

The aims of this study on porcine ovarian granulosa cells were to examine the effect of GH on oxytocin (OT), IGF-I and IGF-I receptors, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), progesterone and prostaglandin E (PGE), as well as to determine whether IGF-I and/or OT may be mediators of GH action. The cells were cultured either with porcine GH (pGH) (1 ng/ml to 10 microg/ml or 100 ng/ml only), antiserum against IGF-I (0.1%), antiserum against OT (0.1%) or a combination of GH (10 ng/ml) with antiserum against IGF-I or antiserum against OT (0.1%). The secretion of IGF-I, OT, IGFBP-3, progesterone and PGE was determined using RIA/IRMA, whilst the IGF-I binding sites were measured using a radioreceptor assay. It was observed that pGH increased the secretion of IGF-I and the abundance of IGF-I binding sites in granulosa cells. Furthermore, GH inhibited OT release, stimulated progesterone and PGE output, but had no significant effect on IGFBP-3 secretion. Immunoneutralization of IGF-I by antiserum against IGF-I inhibited PGE secretion, but it did not influence progesterone or IGFBP-3 secretion. Binding of OT by antiserum suppressed IGFBP-3, PGE, but not progesterone secretion. Neither immunoneutralization of IGF-I nor OT substantially prevented the effects of GH on progesterone, IGFBP and PGE. These observations demonstrate the involvement of GH, IGF-I and OT in the control of porcine ovarian secretory activity and the ability of GH to regulate IGF-I and OT production and IGF-I reception. Nevertheless, lack of correlation between the effects of GH, antiserum against IGF-I and antiserum against OT, as well as the inability of blockade of IGF-I or OT to prevent the effects of GH, suggests that IGF-I and OT, despite their dependence on GH, do not mediate GH action on ovarian cells.

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AV Sirotkin, AV Makarevich, J Kotwica, PG Marnet, HB Kwon, and L Hetenyi

The aim of our in vitro experiments with isolated porcine ovarian follicles was to study the effects of gonadotropins, GH, IGF-I and oxytocin (OT) on release of ovarian steroid, OT, IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), prostaglandin F (PGF), prostaglandin E (PGE) and cAMP. It was found that quarters of ovarian follicles cultured for 8 days produced significant amounts of progesterone, estradiol-17 beta, OT and IGFBP-3 with peaks of accumulation from the 3rd to the 8th day of culture. Addition of serum promoted progesterone, estradiol and OT release, whilst accumulation of IGFBP-3 was maintained to a greater extent in serum-free medium. GH (10 ng/ml or above) was able to inhibit androstenedione, OT, PGF and IGFBP-3, to stimulate IGF-I and cAMP, and to alter testosterone and PGE release by follicles cultured in serum-supplemented and/or serum-free medium. IGF-I (10 ng/ml or more) inhibited androstenedione and PGF secretion, stimulated testosterone, estradiol, OT and cAMP production, but did not influence progesterone, IGFBP-3 or PGE output in these conditions. OT (100 ng/ml) was able to inhibit androstenedione and to stimulate testosterone, IGF-I, PGF and PGE, but not estradiol or IGFBP-3 release. A stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone and OT and an inhibitory influence of LH on estradiol secretion in the serum-supplemented medium were observed. FSH in these conditions stimulated OT, but not progesterone or estradiol secretion. The use of this experimental model suggests the involvement of gonadotropins, OT, GH and IGF-I in the control of ovarian steroid and nonapeptide hormone, growth factor, growth factor-binding protein, prostaglandin and cyclic nucleotide production. The stimulatory effect of GH on IGF-I, and the stimulatory influence of IGF-I on OT, as well as coincidence of the majority of effects of IGF-I and OT, suggest the existence of a GH-IGF-I-OT axis. On the other hand, the different patterns of action of GH and IGF-I on OT, estrogen and IGFBP-3 suggest that part of the GH effect on ovarian cells is IGF-I independent.

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A V Sirotkin, P Sanislo, H-J Schaeffer, I Florkovičová, J Kotwica, J Bulla, and L Hetényi

Thrombopoietin (TPO) is known to be involved in megakariocytopoesis, but its role in the control of ovarian function is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether TPO can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of ovarian cells, to identify possible intracellular mediators of TPO action, especially protein kinase A (PKA), and to define their interrelationships within ovarian cells. We investigated the effect of TPO treatment (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) on the following characteristics of cultured porcine ovarian follicles, determined using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, RIA and ELISA: the expression of intracellular peptides associated with proliferation (PCNA), apoptosis (Bax), tyrosine kinase (TK, phosphotyrosine), Cdc2/p34 kinase, PKA and the transcription factor CREB-1, and the secretion of progesterone, androstenedione, estradiol-17β, oxytocin, inhibin A, inhibin B, IGF-I, transforming growth factor-2β (TGF-2β) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). The involvement of PKA-dependent pathways was examined by evaluating the effect of a PKA blocker (KT5720, 1 μg/ml), either alone or in combination with TPO, on the parameters listed above.

A TPO-induced increase in expression of PCNA, Bax, PKA, TK, Cdc2/p34 and CREB was observed. Furthermore, TPO was able to inhibit androstenedione, estradiol, TGF-2β and IGFBP-3 secretion, and to stimulate oxytocin, inhibin A, inhibin B and IGF-I secretion. Progesterone secretion was not stimulated. The PKA blocker KT5720, when given alone, reduced the expression of Bax and TGF-2β, augmented the expression of PKA, CREB and oxytocin, but did not influence the secretion of progesterone, androstenedione, estradiol, IGFBP-3, inhibins A and B or IGF-I. When given together with TPO, the PKA blocker prevented or reversed the action of TPO on PKA, CREB, androstenedione, estradiol, IGFBP-3, oxytocin, but not its effect on Bax, TGF-2β or inhibin B. On the other hand, treatment with KT5720 augmented the effect of TPO on progesterone, inhibin A and IGF-I.

These results provide the first evidence that TPO may be a potent regulator of ovarian function (e.g. proliferation, apoptosis and the secretion of peptide hormones, steroids, growth factors and growth factor-binding protein, as well as of the expression of some intracellular messengers). Furthermore, they demonstrated the importance of PKA in controlling these functions and in mediating the effects of TPO on ovarian cells. It remains possible that other (TK- and Cdc2/p34-dependent) intracellular mechanisms are also involved in mediating TPO action on the ovary.