Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) colocalizes with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions. We have explored a potential role of oxidized fatty acids in LDL as PPARgamma activators. LDL from patients suffering from intermittent claudication due to atherosclerosis was analyzed using HPLC and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry and found to contain 9-hydroxy and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE), as well as 5-hydroxy-, 12-hydroxy- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 12- and 15-HETE respectively). PPARgamma was potently activated by 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE, as judged by transient transfection assays in macrophages or CV-1 cells. 5(S)- and 12(S)-HETE as well as 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) also activated PPARgamma but were less potent. Interestingly, the effect of the lipoxygenase products 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE as well as of the drug rosiglitazone were preferentially enhanced by the coactivator CREB-binding protein, whereas the effect of the cyclooxygenase product 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) was preferentially enhanced by steroid receptor coactivator-1. We interpret these results, which may have relevance to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, to indicate that the lipoxygenase products on the one hand and the cyclooxygenase product on the other exert specific effects on the transcription of target genes through differential coactivator recruitment by PPARgamma/9-cis retinoic acid receptor heterodimer complexes.
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