Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author: J. E. Sánchez-Criado x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

J. E. Sánchez-Criado, J. Th. J. Uilenbroek and B. Karels

ABSTRACT

Administration of the antiprogesterone RU486 (2 mg/day) for 14 days to rats with a 5-day reproductive cycle resulted in an increase in both ovarian and pituitary weight in contrast with rats with a 4-day oestrous cycle. Luteal progesterone production decreased earlier in 4-day than in 5-day cyclic rats. Treatment of 5-day cyclic rats with antiprogesterone from the day of metoestrus onwards resulted in the advancement of the preovulatory prolactin surge by 24 h. Progesterone production by the corpus luteum was, however, not affected, indicating that in 5-day cyclic rats the corpora lutea are still functionally active at the time of the preovulatory surge of prolactin. They become, therefore, stimulated both in size and progesterone production. In contrast, the corpora lutea in 4-day cyclic rats are functionally inactive at the time of the preovulatory surge of prolactin, and prolactin acts luteolytically. In conclusion, the advancement of the preovulatory surge of prolactin by 24 h accounts, at least in part, for the increase in ovarian weight in 5-day cyclic rats after treatment with antiprogesterone. The results of these experiments do not agree with a direct effect of the antiprogesterone RU486 on progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 132, 115–122

Restricted access

J. E. Sánchez-Criado, K. Ochiai and I. Rothchild

ABSTRACT

Adult female rats were hypophysectomized and their pituitary glands autotransplanted beneath the left kidney capsule on day 2 (day 1 was the day of ovulation). In such rats the pituitary secretes prolactin fairly constantly and the corpora lutea secrete progesterone for several months. To induce the luteolytic effect of prolactin the rats were first injected s.c. with 2-bromo-α-ergocryptine (CB-154) on cycle days 12, 13 and 14 (i.e. 10, 11 and 12 days after operation) to depress prolactin secretion, and then with CB-154 vehicle (70% ethanol) daily until cycle day 21, to allow prolactin secretion to resume. One ovary was removed from each rat on day 15 and the remaining one on day 22. The mean (± s.e.m.) weight of the corpora lutea on day 15 was 1·46±0·06 mg and 0·98±0·07 mg on day 22 (n = 17). In contrast, rats in which the CB-154 treatment was maintained to day 21 had corpora lutea which weighed 1·31 ±0·09 on day 15 and 1·47 ±0·08 mg on day 22 (n = 15). To investigate whether indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, affected the luteolytic action of prolactin, the experiment was repeated, but on day 15 (after the removal of one ovary) the groups in which CB-154 treatment was stopped, as well as the group in which CB-154 treatment was maintained, were each divided into two groups. In one, indomethacin-containing silicone elastomer wafers and, in the other, blank silicone elastomer wafers, were placed within the bursa of the remaining ovary. There were no differences in corpus luteum weight on day 15 among any of these groups and the two groups of the first experiment.

There was no significant difference in corpus luteum weight between day 15 and day 22 in any of the six groups except for the two groups treated with the CB-154 vehicle and not with indomethacin. Thus, treatment with indomethacin prevented the fall in corpus luteum weight associated with the discontinuation of CB-154 treatment.

Serum prolactin levels fell until day 15 in all rats and remained low in those in which the CB-154 treatment was maintained to day 21, but returned to control values in those treated with vehicle after day 14. Serum progesterone levels fell and remained low in all groups. Indomethacin treatment had no effect on the levels of either serum prolactin or progesterone. We conclude that some of the pharmacological effects of indomethacin are to prevent prolactin-induced luteolysis, and we suggest that prolactin induces rapid regression of the corpus luteum by stimulating intraluteal prostaglandin production or by being necessary for the effect of luteolytic prostaglandins.

J. Endocr. (1987) 112, 317–322

Restricted access

J. E. Sánchez-Criado, P. van der Schoot and J. Th. J. Uilenbroek

ABSTRACT

Injection of 1 mg bromocriptine at either 08.00 or 16.00 h on the day of oestrus in rats with 5-day oestrous cycles caused a reduction in the duration of progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum during dioestrous, and a shortening of the ovarian cycle by 1 day. These effects were not present when bromocriptine was injected at 08.00 h on the day of metoestrus. The effect of bromocriptine on progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum was reversed by neutralization of the biological activity of LH at dioestrus by injection of 0·5 ml anti-LH serum at 08.00 h at metoestrus. Injection of the antiserum alone prolonged progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, but had no effect on the length of dioestrus.

These results are interpreted as suggesting (1) that prolactin secretion on the afternoon of oestrus protects the corpus luteum of the rat ovarian cycle against the luteolytic effects of LH secretion during early dioestrus and (2) that prolactin stimulates progesterone secretion in the absence of such a luteolytic action. This response of the corpus luteum of the rat ovarian reproductive cycle to prolactin results in 5-day oestrous cycles.

J. Endocr. (1988) 117, 455–460

Restricted access

J. E. Sánchez-Criado, J. Th. J. Uilenbroek and F. H. de Jong

ABSTRACT

Since administration of the antiprogesterone RU486 to cyclic rats results in a dissociation of basal LH and FSH secretion we studied its effects on peripheral levels of inhibin, oestradiol and testosterone throughout the oestrous cycle. Cyclic rats were given RU486 (2 mg) twice daily (09.00 and 17.00 h) on metoestrus, dioestrus and pro-oestrus. Oil-treated rats were used as controls.

Serum concentrations of immunoreactive inhibin in oil-treated rats increased from metoestrus to prooestrus and decreased at oestrus. RU486-treated rats had serum inhibin concentrations significantly increased over oil-treated rats at dioestrus and prooestrus, but not at oestrus. At both pro-oestrus and oestrus serum concentrations of LH, testosterone and oestradiol were significantly raised in RU486-treated rats compared with oil-treated controls. In contrast, serum FSH concentrations in RU486-treated rats were decreased on both days. Ovaries from RU486-treated rats showed an increased testosterone content at pro-oestrus, mainly in the interstitial tissue.

The results of thepresent study demonstrate that RU486 has a stimulatory effect on inhibin secretion, and offer an explanation for the decrease in basal serum FSH levels. The low FSH secretion on the morning of oestrus in spite of the low levels of inhibin suggests that progesterone is involved in FSH secretion at this time.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 134, 51–57

Restricted access

F Gaytán, C Bellido, C Morales, E Aguilar and J E Sánchez-Criado

Abstract

The proliferative activity of the rat corpus luteum was studied on days 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 17, 19 and 21 of pregnancy. Proliferating cells were detected by the immunohistochemical demonstration of DNA-incorporated 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and by the presence of mitoses. Steroidogenic luteal cells showed two proliferative waves on days 12–15 and on day 21, when relatively abundant BrdU-labeled and mitotic cells were observed. These cells were clearly distinguishable from non-steroidogenic cells by their round nuclei and large polygonal cytoplasm. The proliferative activity on days 12–15 was coincident with an increase in the size of the cells and in progesterone concentrations. On the other hand, the proliferative activity of non-steroidogenic luteal cells (especially endothelial cells of the blood and lymphatic vessels) followed a different pattern. These cells intensely proliferated on days 2–3 of pregnancy and this proliferative activity was significantly higher than that observed in non-pregnant rats on metestrus and diestrus. A new proliferative wave was observed on days 12–15, in association with the increase in the proliferative activity of steroidogenic cells. The presence of both BrdU-labeled and mitotic steroidogenic luteal cells provides evidence that these cells do proliferate and that both hypertrophy and hyperplasia are involved in the increase in the parenchyma of the corpus luteum during pregnancy. Also, the results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the proliferative activity in the corpus luteum at different times during pregnancy.

Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 154, 211–217

Restricted access

J. E. Sánchez-Criado, C. Bellido, F. J. López and F. Galiot

ABSTRACT

Administration of the antiprogesterone RU486 to 4-day cyclic rats from metoestrus to pro-oestrus increases serum levels of LH while decreasing levels of FSH. If it is assumed that there is only one gonado-trophin-releasing hormone, there is no direct explanation for the decrease in FSH concentrations. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate the effect of RU486 on gonadotrophin secretion in cyclic rats during periods when the secretion of LH and FSH diverges. RU486 blunted the transient increase in FSH concentration on the afternoon of metoestrus and the compensatory ovarian hypertrophy on the next day of oestrus in unilaterally ovariectomized 4–day cyclic rats. In addition, bilateral ovariectomy reversed the effect of RU486 on the basal secretion of FSH. RU486 induced an increase in basal LH concentrations. Since ovarian inhibin decreases the basal release of FSH, and decreases in peripheral inhibin seem to be responsible for the transient rise in FSH during the oestrous cycle, the effect of RU486 on serum levels of LH and FSH during dioestrus in rats injected with a sheep anti-inhibin serum (AIS) were further evaluated. Treatment with AIS increased FSH levels in oil-treated rats without altering the levels of LH. In contrast, the effects of AIS on FSH secretion were blunted in RU486-treated rats. The results suggest that inhibin might be involved in the RU486-induced decrease of FSH secretion in cyclic rats.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 134, 43–49

Free access

J E Sánchez-Criado, J Martín de las Mulas, C Bellido, R Aguilar and J C Garrido-Gracia

The selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen (TX) has agonist/antagonist actions on LH secretion in the rat. Whereas in the absence of oestrogens TX elicits progesterone receptor (PR)-dependent GnRH self-priming, it antagonizes oestrogen-stimulatory action on LH secretion. The aim of these experiments was to explore whether TX treatment-induced differential expression of oestrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ in the gonadotrope may determine its agonist effect on LH secretion. In the first experiment, basal LH secretion, GnRH-stimulated LH secretion and PR-dependent GnRH self-priming were determined in incubated pituitaries from ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with oestradiol benzoate (EB), TX or raloxifene (RX). Cycling rats in metoestrus or pro-oestrus were used as basic controls. As in pro-oestrus, pituitaries from OVX rats treated with EB exhibited GnRH-stimulated LH secretion, immunohistochemical PR expression and GnRH self-priming. While RX had no effect on these parameters, TX induced PR expression and GnRH self-priming. GnRH self-priming was absent in pituitaries incubated with the antiprogestin ZK299. In the second experiment, we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of ERα and ERβ in gonadotropes of cycling rats and OVX rats treated with EB, TX or RX. We found that while ERα expression was similar in all six groups, ERα expression was oestrous cycle dependent. Moreover, ERα expression in gonadotropes of TX-treated rats was as high as that found in pro-oestrus, while ERα expression in the gonadotropes of RX-treated rats was lower than in metoestrous or pro-oestrous pituitaries. These results suggest that, in the absence of the cognate ligand, TX, unlike RX, may regulate LH secretion through the ERα subtype in gonadotropes.

Restricted access

J E Sánchez-Criado, G Hernandez, C Bellido, D Gonzalez, M Tébar, M A Diaz-Cruz and R Alonso

Abstract

The antiprogesterone RU486 injected on the morning of pro-oestrus blunts the preovulatory secretion of LH and FSH and abolishes the secondary secretion of FSH during oestrus without affecting ovulation in the rat. To ascertain whether the secretion of LHRH is involved in these effects, we studied the effects of RU486 (4 mg/0·2 ml oil), given s.c. at 0800 h on pro-oestrus, on LHRH secretion into the pituitary stalk blood vessels and on peripheral plasma concentrations of LH and FSH at 1800 h on pro-oestrus and 0200 h on oestrus. Furthermore, we determined the effects of an s.c. injection of 1 mg of an LHRH antagonist (LHRH-A; ORG30276) at 2000 h on pro-oestrus and those of an i.p. injection of 100 ng LHRH (Peninsula 7201) at 0100 h on oestrus on serum concentrations of LH, FSH and oestradiol at 0200 h on oestrus in oil- and RU486-treated rats.

RU486 decreased LHRH secretion at 1800 h on prooestrus while this was increased at 0200 h on oestrus. While the reduction of preovulatory LHRH secretion in RU486-treated rats coincided with a reduction in both LH and FSH surges during the evening of pro-oestrus, the increased LHRH secretion during the early hours of oestrus was only accompanied by an increased concentration of LH. An injection of LHRH stimulated, while that of LHRH-A inhibited serum concentrations of LH at 0200 h on oestrus in both oil- and RU486-treated rats. An injection of LHRH-A had no effect on FSH concentration at 0200 h on oestrus in either oil- or RU486-treated rats. On the contrary, exogenous LHRH increased FSH concentration at 0200 h on oestrus only in oil-treated rats.

The results indicate that, in the rat, progesterone secretion during the afternoon and evening of pro-oestrus enhances preovulatory LHRH and suppresses LHRH release during early oestrus into the pituitary stalk blood vessels on the afternoon of pro-oestrus and during early oestrus respectively. While the secretion of LH during early oestrus is blunted by progesterone and entirely coupled to LHRH secretion, the secondary secretion of FSH during oestrus is not dependent on endogenous LHRH and at the same time is completely dependent on the actions (direct and/or indirect) of progesterone.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 141, 7–14

Free access

J E Sánchez-Criado, J Martín de las Mulas, C Bellido, V M Navarro, R Aguilar, J C Garrido-Gracia, M M Malagón, M Tena-Sempere and A Blanco

In the rat, oestrogen is a key regulator of gonadotrophin synthesis and release through activation of oestrogen receptors (ERs). Gonadotropes express α and β isoforms of ER and both can activate transcription in response to oestrogen. These experiments were aimed at evaluating the relative contribution of ERα and ERβ on gonadotrope morphology, progesterone receptor (PR) expression and LH secretion. Ovariectomized rats were daily injected over 3 days with 25 μg oestradiol benzoate, 0.3 or 1.5 mg of the selective ERα agonist propylpyrazole triol (PPT) with or without 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 mg of the selective ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN), DPN alone, and 0.3 or 3 mg of tamoxifen. Controls were given 0.2 ml oil. Serum concentration and pituitary content of LH, gonadotrope PR expression, pituitary PR content, and gonadotrope morphology were analyzed by RIA, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and light and electron microscopy, respectively. Results showed that PPT reversed all consequences of ovariectomy, DPN mimicked the effects of PPT except for its LH-releasing action and tamoxifen had ERα-like responses. When combined with PPT, DPN attenuated ERα effects without interfering with its LH-releasing activity. Oestradiol benzoate had similar effects to those of combined PPT and DPN. It is suggested that (i) the structural reorganization of the cytoplasmic organelles provided by oestrogen, and the shrinkage of the ovariectomy-induced hypertrophy of gonadotropes, which precedes the expression of PR, are evoked by ERα and modulated, in a ying–yang fashion, by ERβ; and (ii) the oestrogen-dependent exocytosis of LH, the final step in the secretory process, is dependent on ERα exclusively.