The initial characterization of a thyroid iodotyrosine dehalogenase (tDh), which deiodinates mono-iodotyrosine and di-iodotyrosine, was made almost 50 years ago, but little is known about its catalytic and kinetic properties. A distinct group of dehalogenases, the so-called iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs), that specifically remove iodine atoms from iodothyronines were subsequently discovered and have been extensively characterized. Iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 (ID1) is highly expressed in the rat thyroid gland, but the co-expression in this tissue of the two different dehalogenating enzymes has not yet been clearly defined. This work compares and contrasts the kinetic properties of tDh and ID1 in the rat thyroid gland. Differential affinities for substrates, cofactors and inhibitors distinguish the two activities, and a reaction mechanism for tDh is proposed. The results reported here support the view that the rat thyroid gland has a distinctive set of dehalogenases specialized in iodine metabolism.
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