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Jianmei Yang Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China
Endocrinology, SBMS, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia

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Chen Chen Endocrinology, SBMS, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy occurring in reproductive-age women. Hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation, and metabolic aberrations are the common features in PCOS. Hormonal changes are causing pathological symptoms in women with PCOS. The various hormone alterations in PCOS have been demonstrated. Hormones, such as insulin, growth hormones (GH), ghrelin, LEAP-2, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), insulin, the luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, androgens, and estrogens, are all abnormal in PCOS women. These hormones are related to metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and insulin resistance, overweight and obesity, infertility, and disturbed menstrual cycle in PCOS patients. The pathological changes of these hormones, such as increased insulin, reduced GH, increased ghrelin, and leptin resistance, result in an increased prevalence of diabetes and obesity in PCOS women. A reduced GH, increased LEAP-2 levels, high LH basal, increased LH/FSH ratio, high androgens, and low estrogen are demonstrated in PCOS and linked to infertility. This narrative review aims to clarify the changes of hormone profiles, such as insulin, GH, LH, FSH, androgens, estrogen, progesterone, ghrelin, LEAP-2, asprosin, and subfatin, in PCOS, which may reveal novel targets for better diagnosis and treatment of PCOS.

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