PERK is a pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase. Its complete deletion in pancreatic β cells induces insulin deficiency; however, the effects of partial Perk suppression are unclear. We investigated the effect of partial PERK suppression using the specific PERK inhibitors GSK2606414 and GSK2656157. Low-dose GSK2606414 treatment for 24 h enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), islet insulin content and calcium transit in mouse (at 40 nM) and human (at 50–100 nM) pancreatic islets. GSK2606414 also induced the expression of the ER chaperone BiP and the release of calcium from the ER. When Bip expression was inhibited using a Bip siRNA, the GSK2606414-induced augmentation of the ER calcium level, islet insulin contents, glucose-stimulated cytosolic calcium transit and GSIS were abrogated. In both wild-type and insulin-deficient Atg7-knockout mice, 8 weeks of GSK2656157 treatment enhanced GSIS and improved hyperglycemia without affecting body weight. In conclusion, partial PERK inhibition induced BiP expression in islets, increased glucose-stimulated calcium transit and islet insulin contents and enhanced GSIS, suggesting that low-dose PERK inhibitors could potentially be used to treat insulin deficiency.
Min Joo Kim, Se Hee Min, Seon Young Shin, Mi Na Kim, Hakmo Lee, Jin Young Jang, Sun-Whe Kim, Kyong Soo Park and Hye Seung Jung
Eun Hee Koh, Ah-Ram Kim, Hyunshik Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Hye-Sun Park, Myoung Seok Ko, Mi-Ok Kim, Hyuk-Joong Kim, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Su Jung Kim, Jin Sun Oh, Chang-Yun Woo, Jung Eun Jang, Jaechan Leem, Myung Hwan Cho and Ki-Up Lee
Mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophic adipocytes can reduce adiponectin synthesis. We investigated whether 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) expression is increased in hypertrophic adipocytes and whether this is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced adiponectin synthesis. Differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes were cultured for up to 21 days. The effect of AZD6925, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, on metabolism was examined. db/db mice were administered 600 mg/kg AZD6925 daily for 4 weeks via gastric lavage. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mRNA expression levels of 11 β -H sd1 and mitochondrial biogenesis factors, adiponectin synthesis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), oxygen consumption rate and glycolysis were measured. Adipocyte hypertrophy in 3T3L1 cells exposed to a long duration of culture was associated with increased 11 β -Hsd1 mRNA expression and reduced mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis factor expression and adiponectin synthesis. These cells displayed reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis. Treatment of these cells with AZD6925 increased adiponectin synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. Inhibition of FAO by etomoxir blocked the AZD6925-induced increase in adiponectin synthesis, indicating that 11β-HSD1-mediated reductions in FAO are responsible for the reduction in adiponectin synthesis. The expression level of 11 β -Hsd1 was higher in adipose tissues of db/db mice. Administration of AZD6925 to db/db mice increased the plasma adiponectin level and adipose tissue FAO. In conclusion, increased 11β-HSD1 expression contributes to reduced mitochondrial respiration and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes.
Jin-Bong Lee, Sung-Jin Yoon, Sang-Hyun Lee, Moo-Seung Lee, Haiyoung Jung, Tae-Don Kim, Suk Ran Yoon, Inpyo Choi, Ik-Soo Kim, Su Wol Chung, Hee Gu Lee, Jeong-Ki Min and Young-Jun Park
Healthy expansion of adipose tissue maintains metabolic homeostasis by storing excess chemical energy in increased fat mass. The STAT5-PPAR gamma pathway reportedly regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the diverse groups of steroidal saponins, the major active components of ginseng, which have demonstrated pharmacological properties. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rg3 under pathological conditions in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on glucose level, insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Ginsenoside Rg3 was also applied to the pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 to assess the impact on lipogenesis. Ginsenoside Rg3 reduced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) size and hepatic steatosis, and the amount of triglycerides (TGs) in both eWAT and liver. Similar to the murine model, Rg3-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed a reduction in lipid accumulation and amount of total TGs. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates the expression of PPAR gamma though STAT5 in vitro and in vivo. According to our results, lipid metabolism-related genes were downregulated in the high-fat mice and 3T3-L1 cell line. Rg3 shows potential for the amelioration of obesity-induced pathology, acting though STAT5-PPAR gamma to facilitate the healthy functioning of adipose tissue. This is the first report of evidence that obesity-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity can be treated with ginsenoside Rg3, which acts though the STAT5-PPAR gamma pathway in vivo and in vitro.
Seul Gi Kang, Hyon-Seung Yi, Min Jeong Choi, Min Jeong Ryu, Saetbyel Jung, Hyo Kyun Chung, Joon Young Chang, Yong Kyung Kim, Seong Eun Lee, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Hoil Choi, Dong Seok Kim, Ju Hee Lee, Koon Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Chul-Ho Lee, Yuichi Oike and Minho Shong
Recent studies revealed that the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is coupled with the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, thereby stimulating the secretion of non-cell autonomous factors, which may control systemic energy metabolism and longevity. However, the nature and roles of non-cell autonomous factors induced in adipose tissue in response to reduced OXPHOS function remain to be clarified in mammals. CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) is an essential mitoribosomal protein for the intramitochondrial production of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS subunits. Deficiency of CRIF1 impairs the proper formation of the OXPHOS complex, resulting in reduced function. To determine which secretory factors are induced in response to reduced mitochondrial OXPHOS function, we analyzed gene expression datasets in Crif1-depleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Crif1 deficiency preferentially increased the expression of angiopoietin-like 6 (Angptl6) and did not affect other members of the ANGPTL family. Moreover, treatment with mitochondrial OXPHOS inhibitors increased the expression of Angptl6 in cultured adipocytes. To confirm Angptl6 induction in vivo, we generated a murine model of reduced mitochondrial OXPHOS function using adipose tissue-specific Crif1-deficient mice and verified the upregulation of Angptl6 and fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) in white adipose tissue. Treatment with recombinant ANGPTL6 protein increased oxygen consumption and Pparα expression through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in cultured adipocytes. Furthermore, the ANGPTL6-mediated increase in Pparα expression resulted in increased FGF21 expression, thereby promoting β-oxidation. In conclusion, mitochondrial OXPHOS function governs the expression of ANGPTL6, which is an essential factor for FGF21 production in adipose tissue and cultured adipocytes.