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María F Andreoli, Jose Donato Jr, Isin Cakir and Mario Perello

Leptin resistance refers to states in which leptin fails to promote its anticipated effects, frequently coexisting with hyperleptinaemia. Leptin resistance is closely associated with obesity and also observed in physiological situations such as pregnancy and in seasonal animals. Leptin resensitisation refers to the reversion of leptin-resistant states and is associated with improvement in endocrine and metabolic disturbances commonly observed in obesity and a sustained decrease of plasma leptin levels, possibly below a critical threshold level. In obesity, leptin resensitisation can be achieved with treatments that reduce body adiposity and leptinaemia, or with some pharmacological compounds, while physiological leptin resistance reverts spontaneously. The restoration of leptin sensitivity could be a useful strategy to treat obesity, maintain weight loss and/or reduce the recidivism rate for weight regain after dieting. This review provides an update and discussion about reversion of leptin-resistant states and modulation of the molecular mechanisms involved in each situation.

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Tabata M Bohlen, Thais T Zampieri, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Jose Donato Jr and Renata Frazao

Growth hormone (GH) is a key factor in the regulation of body growth, as well as a variety of other cellular and metabolic processes. Neurons expressing kisspeptin and leptin receptors (LepR) have been shown to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and are considered GH responsive. The presence of functional GH receptors (GHR) in these neural populations suggests that GH may regulate the HPG axis via a central mechanism. However, there have been no studies evaluating whether or not GH-induced intracellular signaling in the brain plays a role in the timing of puberty or mediates the ovulatory cycle. Toward the goal of understanding the influence of GH on the central nervous system as a mediator of reproductive functions, GHR ablation was induced in kisspeptin and LepR-expressing cells or in the entire brain. The results demonstrated that GH signaling in specific neural populations can potentially modulate the hypothalamic expression of genes related to the reproductive system or indirectly contribute to the progression of puberty. GH action in kisspeptin cells or in the entire brain was not required for sexual maturation. On the other hand, GHR ablation in LepR cells delayed puberty progression, reduced serum leptin levels, decreased body weight gain and compromised the ovulatory cycle in some individuals, while the lack of GH effects in the entire brain prompted shorter estrous cycles. These findings suggest that GH can modulate brain components of the HPG axis, although central GH signaling is not required for the timing of puberty.

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João A B Pedroso, Pedro O R de Mendonca, Marco A S Fortes, Igor Tomaz, Vitor L Pecorali, Thais B Auricino, Ismael C Costa, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Debora N Bueno, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Claudimara F P Lotfi and Jose Donato Jr

Many hormones/cytokines are secreted in response to exercise and cytokine signaling may play a pivotal role in the training adaptations. To investigate the importance of cytokine signaling during vertical ladder climbing, a resistance exercise model, we produced mice lacking SOCS3 protein exclusively in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells (SF1 Socs3 KO mice). SF1 expression is found in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads, as well as in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Histological markers of the fetal adrenal zone (or X-zone in rodents) were still present in adult males and postpartum SF1 Socs3 KO females, suggesting a previously unrecognized effect of SOCS3 on the terminal differentiation of the adrenal gland. This change led to a distinct distribution of lipid droplets along the adrenal cortex. Under basal conditions, adult SF1 Socs3 KO mice exhibited similar adrenal weight, and plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. Nonetheless, SF1 Socs3 KO mice exhibited a blunted ACTH-induced corticosterone secretion. The overall metabolic responses induced by resistance training remained unaffected in SF1 Socs3 KO mice, including changes in body adiposity, glucose tolerance and energy expenditure. However, training performance and glucose control during intense resistance exercise were impaired in SF1 Socs3 KO mice. Furthermore, a reduced counter-regulatory response to 2-deoxy-d-glucose was observed in mutant mice. These findings revealed a novel participation of SOCS3 regulating several endocrine and metabolic aspects. Therefore, cytokine signaling in SF1 cells exerts an important role to sustain training performance possibly by promoting the necessary metabolic adjustments during exercise.