The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) differs from the other steroid receptors in that it responds to two physiological ligands, aldosterone and cortisol. In epithelial tissues, aldosterone selectivity is determined by the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, while in other tissues, including the heart and regions of the central nervous system, cortisol is the primary ligand for the MR where it may act as an antagonist. Clinical trials have demonstrated the potential of MR antagonists in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, though their use has been limited by concurrent hyperkalaemia. In order to better target the MR, an understanding of the structural determinants of tissue- and ligand-specific MR activation is needed. Interactions of the MR have been identified, which exhibit ligand discrimination and/or specificity. These interactions include those of the ligand-binding domain with ligand, with the N-terminal domain and with putative co-regulatory molecules. Agonist and antagonist binding have been characterised using chimeras between the human MR and the glucocorticoid receptor or the zebra fish MR together with molecular modelling. The interaction between the N-terminus and the C-terminus is aldosterone dependent but is unexpectedly antagonised by cortisol and deoxycorticosterone in the human MR. Nuclear receptor-mediated transactivation is critically dependent on, and modulated by, co-regulatory molecules. Proteins that interact with the MR in the presence of either aldosterone or cortisol, but not both, have been identified. The successful identification of ligand-specific interactions of the MR may provide the basis for the development of novel MR ligands with tissue specificity.
Peter J Fuller, Yizou Yao, Jun Yang, and Morag J Young
Peter J Fuller, Jun Yang, and Morag J Young
The cloning of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) 30 years ago was the start of a new era of research into the regulatory processes of MR signalling at target genes in the distal nephron, and subsequently in many other tissues. Nuclear receptor (NR) signalling is modified by interactions with coregulatory proteins that serve to enhance or inhibit the gene transcriptional responses. Over 400 coregulatory proteins have been described for the NR super family, many with functional roles in signalling, cellular function, physiology and pathophysiology. Relatively few coregulators have however been described for the MR although recent studies have demonstrated both ligand and/or tissue selectivity for MR-coregulator interactions. A full understanding of the cell, ligand and promoter-specific requirements for MR-coregulator signalling is an essential first step towards the design of small molecular inhibitors of these protein-protein interactions. Tissue-selective steroidal or non-steroidal modulators of the MR are also a desired therapeutic goal. Selectivity, as for other steroid hormone receptors, will probably depend on differential expression and recruitment of coregulatory proteins.
Siok L Dun, G Cristina Brailoiu, Eugen Brailoiu, Jun Yang, Jaw Kang Chang, and Nae J Dun
Obestatin, a 23 amino acid peptide recently isolated from the rat stomach, is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin. With the use of an antiserum directed against the mouse/rat obestatin, obestatin immunoreactivity (irOBS) was detected in cells of the gastric mucosa, myenteric plexus, and in Leydig cells of the testis in Sprague–Dawley rats. Double labeling the myenteric plexus with obestatin antiserum and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) antiserum revealed that nearly all irOBS neurons were ChAT positive and vice versa. For comparative purposes, myenteric ganglion cells, cells in the gastric mucosa, and Leydig cells of the testis were shown to be immunoreactive to preproghrelin. The biological activity of obestatin on rat central neurons was assessed by the calcium microfluorimetric Fura-2 method. Obestatin (100 nM) administered to dissociated and cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in a population of cortical neurons. The result provides the first immunohistochemical evidence that obestatin is expressed in cells of the gastric mucosa and myenteric ganglion cells, and also in Leydig cells of the testis; the peptide is biologically active on central neurons.
Nikshay Karthigan, Siobhan Lockwood, Anthony White, Jun Yang, and Morag J Young
The mineralocorticoid receptor is a steroid hormone receptor that is well known for its involvement in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in epithelial cells present in the distal nephron. The inappropriate activation of this receptor is now known to be implicated in various pathophysiological mechanisms in heart failure. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists offer substantial clinical benefit in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; however, for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the treatment benefit is less clear. Biomarkers that can predict response to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment do not currently exist. Potential biomarkers may be modulated either directly by the mineralocorticoid receptor or indirectly via downstream effects and be able to reflect treatment outcomes, particularly changes in key parameters of cardiac health and function. A biomarker or set of biomarkers that can reliably predict responsiveness to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment at an early stage may allow for the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment thereby avoiding any unnecessary side effects associated with the use of these medications.
Jung-Hoon Kang, Seo-Yoon Chang, Hyun-Jong Jang, Dong-Bin Kim, Gyeong Ryul Ryu, Seung Hyun Ko, In-Kyung Jeong, Yang-Hyeok Jo, and Myung-Jun Kim
Cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide overproduction leading to β-cell damage. Meanwhile, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its potent analog exendin-4 (EX-4) were well known for β-cell proliferation. However, the protective mechanisms of GLP-1 in β-cells exposed to cytokines were not fully elucidated. Therefore, the effects of EX-4 on the IL-1β-induced iNOS gene expression were investigated employing RINm5F β-cells. EX-4 inhibited IL-1β-induced iNOS protein expression and nitrite production. However, northern blot and promoter analyses showed that EX-4 failed to inhibit IL-1β-induced iNOS mRNA expression and iNOS promoter activity. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), EX-4 did not alter the binding activity of NF-κB to the iNOS promoter. Consistent with the EMSA result, EX-4 did not inhibit nuclear translocation of p65. We also tested the effect of EX-4 on iNOS mRNA stability. Actinomycin D chase experiments showed that EX-4 did not affect the decay rate of iNOS mRNA and the promoter assay using the construct containing 3′-untranslated region of iNOS showed that EX-4 did not alter the stability of iNOS mRNA. Meanwhile, forskolin significantly inhibited IL-1β-induced iNOS protein, which was reversed by H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Moreover, EX-4 pretreatment restored IL-1β-induced decrease in cAMP toward control level. Additionally, the cycloheximide chase study demonstrated that EX-4 significantly accelerated iNOS protein degradation. We therefore concluded that EX-4 inhibited IL-1β-induced iNOS protein and nitrite production via cAMP/PKA system irrespective of both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms of iNOS gene, and this inhibitory effect of EX-4 appears to be regulated at posttranslational level.