The aim of this study was to validate the role of estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling in the regulation of glucose metabolism, and to compare the molecular events upon treatment with the ERα-selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) in ob/ob mice. Female ob/ob mice were treated with PPT, E2 or vehicle for 7 or 30 days. Intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed, and insulin secretion was determined from isolated islets. Glucose uptake was assayed in isolated skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Gene expression profiling in the liver was performed using Affymetrix microarrays, and the expression of selected genes was studied by real-time PCR analysis. PPT and E2 treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Fasting blood glucose levels decreased after 30 days of PPT and E2 treatment. However, PPT and E2 had no effect on insulin secretion from isolated islets. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue were similar in PPT and vehicle-treated ob/ob mice. Hepatic lipid content was decreased after E2 treatment. In the liver, treatment with E2 and PPT increased and decreased the respective expression levels of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and of glucose-6-phosphatase. In summary, our data demonstrate that PPT exerts anti-diabetic effects, and these effects are mediated via ERα.
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L Lundholm, G Bryzgalova, H Gao, N Portwood, S Fält, K D Berndt, A Dicker, D Galuska, J R Zierath, J-Å Gustafsson, S Efendic, K Dahlman-Wright, and A Khan
MK Lindberg, Z Weihua, N Andersson, S Moverare, H Gao, O Vidal, M Erlandsson, S Windahl, G Andersson, DB Lubahn, H Carlsten, K Dahlman-Wright, JA Gustafsson, and C Ohlsson
Estrogen exerts a variety of important physiological effects, which have been suggested to be mediated via the two known estrogen receptors (ERs), alpha and beta. Three-month-old ovariectomized mice, lacking one or both of the two estrogen receptors, were given estrogen subcutaneously (2.3 micro g/mouse per day) and the effects on different estrogen-responsive parameters, including skeletal effects, were studied. We found that estrogen increased the cortical bone dimensions in both wild-type (WT) and double ER knockout (DERKO) mice. DNA microarray analysis was performed to characterize this effect on cortical bone and it identified four genes that were regulated by estrogen in both WT and DERKO mice. The effect of estrogen on cortical bone in DERKO mice might either be due to remaining ERalpha activity or represent an ERalpha/ERbeta-independent effect. Other effects of estrogen, such as increased trabecular bone mineral density, thymic atrophy, fat reduction and increased uterine weight, were mainly ERalpha mediated.