Chorioamnionitis has been shown to be one of the most important factors in inducing preterm delivery. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of chorioamnionitis on placental endocrine functions. Preterm placentas with histologic chorioamnionitis produced smaller amounts of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human placental lactogen (hPL) than those without chorioamnionitis (P < 0.001). To examine the mechanism involved in the suppression of placental endocrine functions induced by chorioamnionitis, we initially confirmed the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, i.e. the CD14 molecule, on trophoblasts by Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We then stimulated purified trophoblasts with LPS, which is the major agent which induces inflammatory responses in the host via the LPS receptor. The trophoblasts stimulated with LPS produced reduced amounts of hCG, hPL, and progesterone in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in spite of the induced manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD) synthesis. Stimulation of trophoblasts with hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase resulted in suppressed hCG production, while the simultaneous addition of SOD into the culture medium reversed the suppression of hCG production. LPS in the placenta with chorioamnionitis might directly stimulate trophoblasts through the LPS receptor (CD14), thus reducing placental endocrine functions. Superoxide anions which exogenously act on trophoblasts might be generated by simultaneous stimulation of neutrophils and monocytes at the feto-maternal interface by LPS, and additively reduce placental endocrine functions.
T Okada, N Matsuzaki, K Sawai, T Nobunaga, K Shimoya, K Suzuki, N Taniguchi, F Saji and Y Murata
M Makino, N Oda, N Miura, S Imamura, K Yamamoto, T Kato, K Fujiwara, Y Sawai, K Iwase, A Nagasaka and M Itoh
Thyroid hormones affect reactions in almost all pathways of lipid metabolism. It has been reported that plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration in hypothyroidism is generally within the normal range. In this study, however, we show that plasma FFA concentration in some hypothyroid patients is higher than the normal range. Symptoms of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals were less severe than those of patients with lower plasma FFA concentrations. From these findings we hypothesized that the change in FFA concentration must correlate with thyroid function. Using an animal model, we then examined the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-E), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from fish oil, on thyroid function in 1-methyl-2-imidazolethiol (MMI)-induced hypothyroid rats. Oral administration of EPA-E inhibited reduction of thyroid hormone levels and the change of thyroid follicles in MMI-induced hypothyroid rats. These findings suggest that FFA may affect thyroid functions and EPA-E may prevent MMI-induced hypothyroidism.
T Mano, K Iwase, I Yoshimochi, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, M Kotake, A Nakai, N Hayakawa, R Kato, A Nagasaka and H Hidaka
Hyper- and hypothyroid states occasionally induce skeletal muscle dysfunction i.e. periodic paralysis and thyroid myopathy. The etiology of these diseases remains unclear, but several findings suggest that the catecholamine-β-receptor-cAMP system or other messenger systems are disturbed in these diseases. In this context, we evaluated changes in the cyclic 3′,5′-nucleotide metabolic enzyme, cyclic 3′,5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and calmodulin concentrations in skeletal muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.
Activities of cyclic AMP-PDE were low in skeletal muscle both from hyper- and hypothyroid rats, and calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats, as compared with normal rats. DE-52 column chromatographic analysis showed that the cGMP hydrolytic activity in peak I and the cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak II were decreased in hypothyroid rats, whereas cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was unchanged. The cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was decreased in hyperthyroid rats, but the activities in peaks I and II were unchanged. These findings indicate that cAMP and calmodulin may have some role in skeletal muscle function in the hyperthyroid state, and that cAMP and calmodulin-dependent metabolism may be suppressed in the hypothyroid state.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 287–292
T Mano, K Iwase, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, Y Itoh, M Kotake, R Masunaga, A Nakai, T Tujimura, A Nagasaka and H Hidaka
To investigate the effect of thyroid hormone on cardiac muscle dysfunction in hyper- and hypothyroid states, we evaluated cyclic 3′, 5′-nucleotide metabolism by measuring cyclic 3′, 5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and calmodulin concentrations in the cardiac muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration was significantly high in the cardiac muscle of hyperthyroid rats and low in that from hypothyroid rats compared with control rats. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities were significantly decreased in the soluble fraction of cardiac muscle from hyperthyroid rats and markedly increased in this fraction in hypothyroid rats compared with normal animals. Calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats.
It was concluded from these findings that low cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity might, in part, bring about the high concentration of cAMP. Calmodulin was sigificantly high in the cardiac muscle of hyperthyroid rats and the reverse was the case in hypothyroid rats compared with normal rats. The implication is that, in hyper- and hypothyroid states, these changes may play an important role in cardiac function via their effect on cyclic nucleotide and Ca2+ metabolism.
Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 143, 515–520
T Mokuno, K Uchimura, R Hayashi, N Hayakawa, M Makino, M Nagata, H Kakizawa, Y Sawai, M Kotake, N Oda, A Nakai, A Nagasaka and M Itoh
The deterioration of glucose metabolism frequently observed in hyperthyroidism may be due in part to increased gluconeogenesis in the liver and glucose efflux through hepatocyte plasma membranes. Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT 2), a facilitative glucose transporter localized to the liver and pancreas, may play a role in this distorted glucose metabolism. We examined changes in the levels of GLUT 2 in livers from rats with l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism or methimazole-induced hypothyroidism by using Western blotting to detect GLUT 2. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed an oxyhyperglycemic curve (impaired glucose tolerance) in hyperthyroid rats (n=7) and a flattened curve in hypothyroid rats (n=7). GLUT 2 levels in hepatocyte plasma membranes were significantly increased in hyperthyroid rats and were not decreased in hypothyroid rats compared with euthyroid rats. The same results were obtained with a densitometric assay. These findings suggest that changes in the liver GLUT 2 concentration may contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism in thyroid disorders.
T Mano, R Sinohara, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, K Asano, Y Ito, M Kotake, M Hamada, A Nakai and A Nagasaka
To determine how lipid peroxides and free radical scavengers are changed in the brain of hyper- or hypothyroid rats, we examined the behavior of lipid peroxide and free radical scavengers in the cerebral cortex of aged (1·5 years old) rats that had been made hyper- or hypothyroid by the administration of thyroxine or methimazol for 4 weeks. Concentrations of catalase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid rats. Concentrations of total SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-PX were increased but that of Mn-SOD was decreased in hypothyroid animals. There were no differences among hyperthyroid, hypothyroid and euthyroid rats in the levels of coenzymes 9 or 10. The concentration of lipid peroxides, determined indirectly by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactants, was decreased in hyperthyroid rats but not in hypothyroid rats when compared with euthyroid animals.
These findings suggest that free radicals and lipid peroxides are scavenged to compensate for the changes induced by hyper- or hypothyroidism.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 147, 361–365