Leptin is secreted from adipose tissue, and is thought to act as a 'lipostat', signalling the body fat levels to the hypothalamus resulting in adjustments to food intake and energy expenditure to maintain body weight homeostasis. In addition, plasma leptin concentrations have been shown to be related to insulin sensitivity independent of body fat content, suggesting that the hyperleptinemia found in obesity could contribute to the insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of leptin on insulin binding by isolated adipocytes. Adipocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in the uptake of 125I-labelled insulin when incubated with various concentrations of exogenous leptin. For example, addition of 50 nM leptin reduced total insulin binding in isolated adipocytes by 19% (P < 0.05). Analysis of displacement curve binding data suggested that leptin reduced maximal insulin binding in a dose-dependent manner, but had no significant effect on the affinity of insulin for its binding site. We conclude that leptin directly inhibited insulin binding by adipocytes, and the role of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in obese individuals requires further investigation.
K Walder, A Filippis, S Clark, P Zimmet, and GR Collier
A Sanigorski, D Cameron-Smith, P Lewandowski, K Walder, A de Silva, G Morton, and GR Collier
We examined the effects of leptin treatment on the expression of key genes in adipocyte metabolism in Psammomys obesus (P. obesus), a polygenic rodent model of obesity. Lean and obese P. obesus were given three daily intraperitoneal injections of either saline or leptin (total of 45 mg/kg per day) for 7 days. In lean animals, leptin treatment led to reductions in food intake, body weight and fat mass. Pair-fed animals matched for the reduction in food intake of the lean leptin-treated animals demonstrated similar reductions in body weight and fat mass. In obese P. obesus, leptin treatment failed to have any effect on body weight or body fat mass, indicating leptin resistance. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in lean leptin-treated animals, whereas pair-fed animals were similar to lean controls. Uncoupling protein 2 and glycerol phosphate acyltransferase were also reduced in the lean leptin-treated animals, but not significantly so. Obese animals did not show any gene expression changes after leptin treatment. In conclusion, high circulating concentrations of leptin in lean P. obesus resulted in decreased gene expression of a number of key lipid enzymes, independent of changes in food intake, body weight and fat mass. These effects of leptin were not found in obese P. obesus.
Juliane K Czeczor, Amanda J Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam G Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie A De Jong, Darren C Henstridge, Peter J Meikle, Mark A Febbraio, Ken Walder, and Sean L McGee
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates a number of peptides when processed through different cleavage mechanisms, including the amyloid beta peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. It is well established that APP via its cleaved peptides regulates aspects of neuronal metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of APP can lead to altered systemic metabolism, similar to that observed in metabolic disease states. In the present study, we investigated the effect of APP deficiency on obesity-induced alterations in systemic metabolism. Compared with WT littermates, APP-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity, which was linked to higher energy expenditure and lipid oxidation throughout the dark phase and was associated with increased spontaneous physical activity. Consistent with this lean phenotype, APP-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) had normal insulin tolerance. However, despite normal insulin action, these mice were glucose intolerant, similar to WT mice fed a HFD. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin in the early phase of the glucose tolerance test. Analysis of the pancreas showed that APP was required to maintain normal islet and β-cell mass under high fat feeding conditions. These studies show that, in addition to regulating aspects of neuronal metabolism, APP is an important regulator of whole body energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis under high fat feeding conditions.