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KL Gatford, AR Egan, IJ Clarke, and PC Owens
JE Eckert, KL Gatford, BG Luxford, RG Campbell, and PC Owens
Birth weight is a determinant of blood leptin concentrations in adults. Since nutrition during pregnancy can affect birth weight, the hypothesis that feed intake during pregnancy alters leptin expression in progeny was examined. Leptin mRNA was measured in subcutaneous adipose tissue and leptin protein was measuredin blood plasma from 59 day old female pigs whose mothers were fed at the same restricted rate except that half were permitted to consume 35% more feed during the second quarter of pregnancy. Leptin mRNA abundance in adipose tissue (P=0.015) and plasma leptin concentration (P=0.01) were higher in progeny from mothers provided with more feed. Body weight at birth was negatively correlated with the abundance of leptin mRNA in subcutaneous fat at 59 days of age (P=0.01). This study shows for the first time that maternal nutrition during pregnancy programs postnatal leptin expression in offspring.
KL Gatford, JA Owens, RG Campbell, JM Boyce, PA Grant, MJ De Blasio, and PC Owens
Circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations increase in pregnancy and administration of GH during early-mid pregnancy increases fetal growth in well-fed pigs. To determine whether increased maternal GH could promote fetal growth when feed availability is restricted, fifteen cross-bred primiparous sows (gilts) were fed at approximately 30% of ad libitum intake, from mating onwards and were injected daily i.m. with recombinant porcine GH (pGH) at doses of 0, 13.4+/-0.3 and 25.6+/-0.5 microg/kg live weight from day 25 to day 51 of pregnancy (term approximately 115 days). Treatment with pGH increased maternal backfat loss between day 25 and day 51 of pregnancy, and increased maternal plasma IGF-I concentrations measured at day 51 of pregnancy. Fetal body weight, length and skull width at day 51 of pregnancy were increased by maternal treatment with pGH. Fetal plasma glucose concentrations were increased and maternal/fetal plasma glucose concentration gradients were decreased by maternal pGH treatment at 13.4, but not 25.6 microg/kg.day. Fetal plasma concentrations of urea were decreased by both levels of pGH treatment. Overall, fetal weight was negatively correlated with fetal plasma concentrations of urea, positively correlated with maternal plasma alpha-amino nitrogen concentrations and unrelated to glucose concentrations in either maternal or fetal plasma. This suggests that the availability of amino acids, not glucose, limits fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy in underfed gilts, and that maternal GH treatment may improve amino acid delivery to the fetus.
KL Gatford, KJ Quinn, PE Walton, PA Grant, BJ Hosking, AR Egan, and PC Owens
The ontogeny of the IGF endocrine system was investigated in 15 young lambs before and after weaning at 62 days of age. Before weaning, plasma IGF-I concentrations were higher in rams than ewes, and plasma concentrations of IGF-II and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) also tended to be higher in rams than in ewes. Feed intake of ewes and rams was restricted after weaning to remove sex differences in feed intake. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 did not differ between rams and ewes at 100 days of age, but plasma IGF-II was higher in rams than in ewes at this time. Since circulating concentrations of GH were higher in rams than in ewes at 100 days of age, this implies that the restricted feed intake blocked the IGF-I and IGFBP-3 responses to GH. We conclude that sex differences in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations in the growing lamb alter with age, and are not present when nutrition is restricted.
KL Gatford, IJ Clarke, MJ De Blasio, IC McMillen, S Robinson J, and JA Owens
Poor prenatal growth is associated with limited evidence of GH deficiency in adult humans, which may contribute to their increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We therefore examined the effects of placental restriction of fetal growth (PR) on size at birth, neonatal fractional growth rate (FGR) and the circulating GH profile in adolescent and young adult sheep of both sexes. Moderate or severe PR decreased birth size and increased neonatal FGR of weight, crown-rump length and abdominal circumference. In adolescent males, mean and baseline GH concentrations correlated negatively and independently with birth weight and FGR of weight, and mean GH concentrations correlated negatively with current weight. In young adult males, mean GH concentrations correlated negatively and independently with birth shoulder height and FGR of shoulder height whilst, in young adult females, these correlations were positive. This suggests that restricted fetal growth and reduced neonatal growth rate in sheep are followed by elevated circulating GH in adolescent and adult males, but GH deficiency or increased GH clearance in adult females.