Obesity is an increasingly serious epidemic worldwide characterized by an increase in the number and size of adipocytes. Adipose tissue maintains the balance between lipid storage and energy utilization. Therefore, adipose metabolism is of great significance for the prevention, treatment and intervention of obesity. Asprosin, a novel adipokine, is a circulating hormone mainly secreted by white adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that asprosin plays a role in fasting-induced homeostasis, insulin resistance, and glucose tolerance. However, whether it can regulate the metabolism of adipose tissue itself has not been studied. This study intended to examine the roles and potential mechanisms of asprosin in adipose regulation. We first demonstrated that the expression level of asprosin was significantly downregulated in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed or cold-stimulated mice. Overexpression of asprosin in scWAT reduced heat production, decreased expression of the browning marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and other browning-related genes, along with upregulation of adipogenic gene expression. Mechanistically, we found that Nrf2 was activated upon cold exposure, but this activation was suppressed after asprosin overexpression. In primary cultured adipocytes, adenovirusmediated asprosin overexpression inhibited adipose browning and aggravated lipid deposition, while Nrf2 agonist oltipraz could reverse these changes. Our findings suggest that novel adipokine asprosin negatively regulated browning and elevate lipid deposition in adipose tissue via a Nrf2-mediated mechanism. Asprosin may be a promising target for the prevention and treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.
Yanli Miao, Haojie Qin, Yi Zhong, Kai Huang, and Caijun Rao
Jun-Ping Wen, Chune Liu, Wen-Kai Bi, Ya-Ting Hu, Qingshi Chen, Huibing Huang, Ji-Xing Liang, Lian-Tao Li, Li-Xiang Lin, and Gang Chen
Adiponectin secreted from adipose tissues plays a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, food intake, and reproduction in the hypothalamus. We have previously demonstrated that adiponectin significantly inhibited GNRH secretion from GT1-7 hypothalamic GNRH neuron cells. In this study, we further investigated the effect of adiponectin on hypothalamic KISS1 gene transcription, which is the upstream signal of GNRH. We found that globular adiponectin (gAd) or AICAR, an artificial AMPK activator, decreased KISS1 mRNA transcription and promoter activity. Conversely, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C or AMPKα1-SiRNA augmented KISS1 mRNA transcription and promoter activity. Additionally, gAd and AICAR decreased the translocation of specificity protein-1 (SP1) from cytoplasm to nucleus; however, Compound C and AMPKα1-siRNA played an inverse role. Our experiments in vivo demonstrated that the expression of Kiss1 mRNA was stimulated twofold in the Compound C-treated rats and decreased about 60–70% in gAd- or AICAR-treated rats compared with control group. The numbers of kisspeptin immunopositive neurons in the arcuate nucleus region of Sprague Dawley rats mimicked the same trend seen in Ki ss 1 mRNA levels in animal groups with different treatments. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that adiponectin reduces Kiss1 gene transcription in GT1-7 cells through activation of AMPK and subsequently decreased translocation of SP1.