Mechanisms of carbohydrate-induced secretion of the two incretins namely glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are considered to be mostly similar. However, we found that mice exhibit opposite secretory responses in response to co-administration of maltose plus an α-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol (maltose/miglitol), stimulatory for GLP-1, as reported previously, but inhibitory for GIP. Gut microbiota was shown to be involved in maltose/miglitol-induced GIP suppression, as the suppression was attenuated in antibiotics (Abs)-treated mice and abolished in germ-free mice. In addition, maltose/miglitol administration increased plasma levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), carbohydrate-derived metabolites, in the portal vein. GIP suppression by maltose/miglitol was not observed in mice lacking a SCFA receptor Ffar3, but it was normally seen in Ffar2-deficient mice. Similar to maltose/miglitol administration, co-administration of glucose plus a sodium glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin (glucose/phloridzin) induced GIP suppression, which was again cancelled by Abs treatment. In conclusion, oral administration of carbohydrates with α-glucosidase inhibitors suppresses GIP secretion through a microbiota/SCFA/FFAR3 pathway.