17β-Estradiol (E2) has been shown to modulate the renin–angiotensin system in hydromineral and blood pressure homeostasis mainly by attenuating angiotensin II (ANGII) actions. However, the cellular mechanisms of the interaction between E2 and angiotensin II (ANGII) and its physiological role are largely unknown. The present experiments were performed to better understand the interaction between ANGII and E2 in body fluid control in female ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The present results are the first to demonstrate that PKC/p38 MAPK signaling is involved in ANGII-induced water and sodium intake and oxytocin (OT) secretion in OVX rats. In addition, previous data from our group revealed that the ANGII-induced vasopressin (AVP) secretion requires ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, taken together, the present observations support a novel concept that distinct intracellular ANGII signaling gives rise to distinct neurohypophyseal hormone release. Furthermore, the results show that E2 attenuates p38 MAPK phosphorylation in response to ANGII but not PKC activity in the hypothalamus and the lamina terminalis, suggesting that E2 modulates ANGII effects through the attenuation of the MAPK pathway. In conclusion, this work contributes to the further understanding of the interaction between E2 and ANGII signaling in hydromineral homeostasis, as well as it contributes to further elucidate the physiological relevance of PKC/p38 MAPK signaling on the fluid intake and neurohypophyseal release induced by ANGII.
G Almeida-Pereira, T Vilhena-Franco, R Coletti, S Q Cognuck, H V P Silva, L L K Elias and J Antunes-Rodrigues
Ernane Torres Uchoa, Paula Beatriz Marangon, Rodrigo Rorato, Silvia Graciela Ruginsk, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues and Lucila L K Elias
Adrenalectomy (ADX) induces hypophagia and glucocorticoids counter-regulate the peripheral metabolic effects of insulin. This study evaluated the effects of ADX on ICV (lateral ventricle) injection of insulin-induced changes on food intake, mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides (insulin receptor (InsR), proopiomelanocortin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (Cart), agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y (Npy) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), corticotrophin-releasing factor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) and hypothalamic protein content of insulin signaling-related molecules (insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 1, protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP)) Compared with sham animals, ADX increased the hypothalamic content of pJNK/JNK, PTP1B and TCPTP, as well as decreased mRNA expression of InsR, and corticosterone (B) treatment reversed these effects. Insulin central injection enhanced hypothalamic content of pAKT/AKT and Cart mRNA expression, decreased Npy mRNA expression and food intake only in sham rats, without effects in ADX and ADX + B rats. Insulin did not alter the hypothalamic phosphorylation of IRS1 and ERK1/2 in the three experimental groups. These data demonstrate that ADX reduces the expression of InsR and increases insulin counter-regulators in the hypothalamus, as well as ADX abolishes hypophagia, activation of hypothalamic AKT pathway and changes in Cart and Npy mRNA expression in the ARC induced by insulin. Thus, the higher levels of insulin counter-regulatory proteins and lower expression of InsR in the hypothalamus are likely to underlie impaired insulin-induced hypophagia and responses in the hypothalamus after ADX.