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Bruno C Pereira, Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, José R Pauli, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas, and Adelino S R da Silva

The main aim of this investigation was to verify the effects of overtraining (OT) on the insulin and inflammatory signaling pathways in mice skeletal muscles. Rodents were divided into control (CT), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up), and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR) groups. Rotarod, incremental load, exhaustive, and grip force tests were used to evaluate performance. Thirty-six hours after the grip force test, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus were extracted for subsequent protein analyses. The three OT protocols led to similar responses of all performance evaluation tests. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (pIRβ; Tyr), protein kinase B (pAkt; Ser473), and the protein levels of plasma membrane glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) were lower in the EDL and soleus after the OTR/down protocol and in the soleus after the OTR/up and OTR protocols. While the pIRβ was lower after the OTR/up and OTR protocols, the pAkt was higher after the OTR/up in the EDL. The phosphorylation of IκB kinase alpha and beta (pIKKα/β; Ser180/181), stress-activated protein kinases/Jun amino-terminal kinases (pSAPK-JNK; Thr183/Tyr185), factor nuclear kappa B (pNFκB p65; Ser536), and insulin receptor substrate 1 (pIRS1; Ser307) were higher after the OTR/down protocol, but were not altered after the two other OT protocols. In summary, these data suggest that OT may lead to skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathway impairment, regardless of the predominance of eccentric contractions, although the insulin signal pathway impairment induced in OTR/up and OTR appeared to be muscle fiber-type specific.

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Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Chadi Pellegrini Anaruma, Marcella Ramos Sant’Ana, Thaís Dantis Pereira de Campos, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Raphael dos Santos Canciglieri, Diego Gomes de Melo, Rania A Mekary, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, and Leandro Pereira de Moura

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a positive correlation with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The aerobic training is an important tool in combating NAFLD. However, no studies have demonstrated the molecular effects of short-term strength training on the accumulation of hepatic fat in obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term strength training on the mechanisms of oxidation and lipid synthesis in the liver of obese mice. The short duration protocol was used to avoid changing the amount of adipose tissue. Swiss mice were separated into three groups: lean control (CTL), sedentary obese (OB) and strength training obese (STO). The obese groups were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and the STO group performed the strength training protocol 1 session/day for 15 days. The short-term strength training reduced hepatic fat accumulation, increasing hepatic insulin sensitivity and controlling hepatic glucose production. The obese animals increased the mRNA of lipogenic genes Fasn and Scd1 and reduced the oxidative genes Cpt1a and Ppara. On the other hand, the STO group presented the opposite results. Finally, the obese animals presented higher levels of lipogenic proteins (ACC and FAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), but the short-term strength training was efficient in reducing this condition, regardless of body weight loss. In conclusion, there was a reduction of obesity-related hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation after short-term strength training, independent of weight loss, leading to improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity and glycemic homeostasis in obese mice. Key points: (1) Short-term strength training (STST) reduced fat accumulation and inflammation in the liver; (2) Hepatic insulin sensitivity and HPG control were increased with STST; (3) The content and activity of ACC and content of FAS were reduced with STST; (4) STST improved hepatic fat accumulation and glycemic homeostasis; (5) STST effects were observed independently of body weight change.

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Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Marcella Ramos Sant’Ana, Guilherme Francisco Peruca, Ana Paula Morelli, Fernando M Simabuco, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, and Leandro Pereira de Moura

Obesity is linked to a reduction in the control of hepatic glucose production, which is the primary mechanism related to fasting hyperglycemia and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The main system involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis synthesis is controlled by pyruvate carboxylase (PC), which increases in obesity conditions. Recently, we showed that short-term strength training is an important tool against obesity-induced hyperglycemia. As aerobic exercise can reduce the hepatic PC content of obese animals, we hypothesized that strength exercise can also decrease this gluconeogenic enzyme. Therefore, this study investigated whether the metabolic benefits promoted by short-term strength training are related to changes in hepatic PC content. Swiss mice were divided into three groups: lean control (Ctl), obese sedentary (ObS), and obese short-term strength training (STST). The STST protocol was performed through one session/day for 15 days. The obese exercised animals had reduced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. These results were related to better control of hepatic glucose production and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Our bioinformatics analysis showed that hepatic PC mRNA levels have positive correlations with glucose levels and adiposity, and negative correlations with locomotor activity and muscle mass. We also found that hepatic mRNA levels are related to lipogenic markers in the liver. Finally, we observed that the obese animals had an increased hepatic PC level; however, STST was efficient in reducing its amount. In conclusion, we provide insights into new biomolecular mechanisms by showing how STST is an efficient tool against obesity-related hyperglycemia and T2DM, even without body weight changes.