Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 27 items for

  • Author: M Chen x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

C M Cheng and T T Chen


The combined effects of teleostean GH and human IGF-I in the regulation of teleost branchial cartilage growth were examined. Ceratobranchial cartilages were dissected from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and maintained in a defined culture medium supplemented with recombinant striped bass GH (sbGH), human IGF-I (hIGF-I) or both, and the uptake of [35S]sulphate by cartilage explants was measured. sbGH alone in the culture medium did not exhibit a significant stimulatory effect on the uptake of [35S]sulphate when compared with the controls. However, with hIGF-I in the culture medium, as low as 1 ng/ml, the stimulatory effect of sbGH was apparent and dose-dependent. The synergism of sbGH and hIGF-I was observed at the concentrations of 1 and 10 ng IGF/I/ml tested. At a constant hIGF-I concentration (10 ng/ml), a maximum stimulatory effect was detected with 3 μg recombinant sbGH/ml, at which point a 2·3-fold increase in sulphation activity was obtained when compared with the treatment with hIGF-I alone. A similar dose-dependent stimulatory effect was observed when native common carp and bonito GHs were tested using this assay system. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of sbGH and hIGF-I on sulphation activity is a common biological function of teleost GH, thus ruling out the possibility of experimental artifacts resulting from utilization of heterologous GH. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to test whether the synergism between sbGH and hIGF-I occurred between sbGH and insulin. Results showed that although bovine insulin was less effective than hIGF-I on the stimulation of [35S]sulphate uptake, the synergistic effects of sbGH with hIGF-I and sbGH with insulin were similar at the concentrations tested. The concept of a 'dual effector' mechanism for GH action in teleosts is supported by these findings.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 147, 67–73

Restricted access



Dispersed human endometrial and myometrial cells grown for up to 4 months as monolayer cultures responded to addition of oestradiol-17β (1 × 10−9 mol/l) to the medium by increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, and an increased rate of cell division. Cultures derived from uterine leiomyomata showed a less consistent mitotic response to the hormone.

Normal endometrial and myometrial cells grown in the oestradiolenriched medium showed a significantly higher efficacy of colony formation (increases of about 60 and 90%, respectively) than cells grown in control medium throughout the experimental period. Exposure to the hormone for 3–4 days was sufficient to induce this effect, which suggests that it does not depend on selection of hormone-sensitive cells. The mitogenic effect of oestradiol, as expressed by increased cloning efficacy, persisted for several days after transfer of the cells to a hormone-free medium. Cultures of foetal rat skeletal muscle failed to respond to oestradiol-17β in the cloning test, and oestradiol-17α was without effect on uterine cells.

It is concluded that oestradiol-17β exerts a direct mitogenic action on some cellular components of the human endometrium and myometrium in vitro.

Free access

T Suwa, M Chen, CL Hawks, and PJ Hornsby

The mechanisms underlying the differentiation of the adrenal cortex into zones are unclear. Microarray studies on RNA from microdissected zona reticularis (ZR) and zona fasciculata/zona glomerulosa (ZF/ZG) derived from adult human adrenal glands showed that a gene of the dickkopf family (DKK), DKK3, is differentially expressed in the zones. The Dickkopf proteins are morphogens involved in Wnt signalling. Northern blotting showed higher DKK3 transcript levels in ZF/ZG than ZR samples. In situ hybridization on adult human adrenal gland sections showed that DKK3 expression was much higher in the ZG than in the ZF or ZR. DKK3 expression was also higher in the medulla. We screened for expression of other members of the DKK family and the related Wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site gene family (WNT), frizzled (FZD), and dishevelled (DVL) gene families. Among dickkopf family members, only DKK3 was expressed at a detectable level in both human and mouse adrenocortical RNA samples. Consistent with previously published data on the effects of Wnt4 gene disruption in the mouse, we found only WNT4 expression within the WNT family in both human and mouse RNA. Northern blotting showed that WNT4 was expressed at a higher level in ZF/ZG cells than in ZR. The higher level of DKK3 and WNT4 expression in ZF/ZG cells was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the frizzled and dishevelled families we found FZD1, FZD2 and DVL3 transcripts in human adrenocortical RNA, and FZD2 and DVL3 in mouse adrenocortical RNA. These data show that a variety of genes of the Wnt signalling pathways are expressed in the adrenal cortex. The zonal distribution of DKK3 expression suggests that it could be involved in zonal differentiation or growth.

Free access

M Noguchi, Y Ikarashi, M Yuzurihara, Y Kase, JT Chen, S Takeda, M Aburada, and A Ishige

The effects of a Japanese herbal medicine, Keishi-bukuryo-gan, and 17beta-estradiol on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced elevation of skin temperature were investigated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Ovariectomy not only potentiated CGRP-induced elevation of skin temperature and arterial vasorelaxation but also induced a lower concentration of endogenous CGRP in plasma and up-regulation of arterial CGRP receptors, suggesting that lowered CGRP in plasma due to ovarian hormone deficiency increases the number of CGRP receptors and consequently amplifies the stimulatory effects of CGRP to elevate skin temperature. Oral Keishi-bukuryo-gan (100-1000 mg/kg, once a day for 7 days) restored a series of CGRP-related responses observed in OVX rats by normalizing plasma CGRP levels in a dose-dependent manner as effectively as s.c. injection. 17Beta-estradiol (0.010 mg/kg, once a day for 7 days). However, Keishi-bukuryo-gan did not affect the lower concentration of plasma estradiol and the decreased uterine weight due to ovariectomy, although the hormone replacement of 17beta-estradiol restored them. These results suggest that Keishi-bukuryo-gan, which does not confer estrogen activity on plasma, may be useful for the treatment of hot flashes in patients for whom estrogen replacement therapy is contraindicated, as well as menopausal women.

Restricted access

T Kobayashi, O Ushijima, J-T Chen, M Shiraki, T Ohta, and M Kiyoki


Hyper-release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a direct and pivotal role in the induction of menopausal hot flushes (HFs), in which a drastic increase in skin temperature occurs. However, it is not possible to investigate whether CGRP induces skin temperature increase and whether skin temperature response to CGRP changes and contributes to the occurrence of HFs in postmenopausal women who are in oestrogen deficiency. By using rats' tail skin temperature (TST), a good marker to evaluate skin temperature regulation, we examined the effects of CGRP and calcitonin (3, 10 and 30 μg/kg, i.v.) on TST in female rats and further investigated the TST change induced by CGRP (10 μg/kg, i.v.) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats compared with that in sham-operated (Sham) rats. We found that CGRP, but not calcitonin, induced a TST increase in a dose-dependent manner and that the TST change induced by CGRP (0·6 ±0·2 °C for OVX rats vs 0·3 ±0·1 °C for Sham rats, P<0·05) and also the basal TST (26·0 ± 0·2 °C for OVX rats vs 25·5 ±0·1 °C for Sham rats) were significantly greater in OVX rats (P<0·05). Furthermore, treatment with oestradiol (30 μg/kg, s.c.) for 8 days partially inhibited the augmented TST response to CGRP in OVX rats and almost completely inhibited (P<0·05) the basal TST elevation, with the concomitant recovery of the serum oestradiol level to that in Sham rats. These results suggest that the augmented skin temperature response to CGRP and the elevation of basal skin temperature that are found in OVX rats, animals which are oestradiol deficient, may also occur in menopausal women and contribute to their HFs.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 431–437

Restricted access

H J Armbrecht, M L Chen, T L Hodam, and M A Boltz


The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), acts on intestinal, renal, and bone cells to regulate skeletal and mineral metabolism. 1,25(OH)2D also induces 24-hydroxylase activity in these target cells. The 24-hydroxylase hydroxylates 1,25(OH)2D to 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D and 25(OH)D to 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The production of 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D is thought to be the first step in the inactivation of 1,25(OH)2D by its target tissues. Previous studies have characterized the induction of the 24-hydroxylase by 1,25(OH)2D in clonal cell lines from intestine and bone. The purpose of these studies was to characterize the induction of the 24-hydroxylase by 1,25(OH)2D in the kidney, using the clonal rat renal cell line NRK-52E. 1,25(OH)2D (10−7 m) increased the mRNA levels for the cytochrome P450 component of the 24-hydroxylase (P450cc24) by sevenfold after 36 h in NRK-52E cells. 1,25(OH)2D increased P450cc24 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 10−8 m. In parallel experiments, 1,25(OH)2D significantly increased 24-hydroxylase enzyme activity after 48–72 h. The increase in P450cc24 mRNA induced by 1,25(OH)2D required on-going transcription and translation and was inhibited by H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. Tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate markedly increased the magnitude of the tissue responsiveness to 1,25(OH)2D by a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. These studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D increases P450cc24 mRNA levels in NRK-52E cells by a mechanism requiring new protein synthesis and involving protein kinase C. This is in contrast to the action of 1,25(OH)2D in intestinal cells, which does not require new protein synthesis, and in osteoblastic cells, which does not involve protein kinase C.

Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 153, 199–205

Free access

Michelle M Chen, Clarence Hale, Shanaka Stanislaus, Jing Xu, and Murielle M Véniant

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo; its most closely related subfamily member, FGF19, is known to be a critical negative regulator of bile acid synthesis. To delineate whether FGF21 also plays a functional role in bile acid metabolism, we evaluated the effects of short- and long-term exposure to native FGF21 and long-acting FGF21 analogs on hepatic signal transduction, gene expression and enterohepatic bile acid levels in primary hepatocytes and in rodent and monkey models. FGF21 acutely induced ERK phosphorylation and inhibited Cyp7A1 mRNA expression in primary hepatocytes and in different rodent models, although less potently than recombinant human FGF19. Long-term administration of FGF21 in mice fed a standard chow diet resulted in a 50–60% decrease in bile acid levels in the liver and small intestines and consequently a 60% reduction of bile acid pool size. In parallel, colonic and fecal bile acid was decreased, whereas fecal cholesterol and fatty acid excretions were elevated. The long-acting FGF21 analog showed superiority to recombinant human FGF21 and FGF19 in decreasing bile acid levels with long duration of effect action in mice. Long-term administration of the long-acting FGF21 analogs in obese cynomolgus monkeys suppressed plasma total bile acid and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels, a biomarker for bile acid synthesis. Collectively, these data reveal a previously unidentified role of FGF21 in bile acid metabolism as a negative regulator of bile acid synthesis.

Free access

M Noguchi, Y Ikarashi, M Yuzurihara, K Mizoguchi, K Kurauchi, JT Chen, and A Ishige

We investigated the mechanism for the augmentation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced elevation of skin temperature in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. I.v. injection of alphaCGRP (10 micro g/kg) elevated skin temperature of the hind paws. The elevation was significantly greater in OVX rats than in sham-operated rats and was inhibited by pretreatment with human CGRP(8-37) (100-1000 micro g/kg i.v.), a CGRP receptor antagonist, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ovariectomy not only potentiated vasorelaxation due to alphaCGRP but increased the number of CGRP receptors in mesenteric arteries. Further, the plasma concentration of endogenous CGRP was significantly lower in OVX rats. These results suggest that the low concentration of plasma CGRP due to ovarian hormone deficiency may induce the increase in the number of CGRP receptors due to up-regulation. Therefore, the increased number of CGRP receptors may be responsible for potentiation of exogenous alphaCGRP-induced elevation of skin temperature in OVX rats. The mechanism underlying the hot flashes observed in menopausal women may also involve, in part, the up-regulation of CGRP receptors following ovarian hormone deficiency.

Free access

Fung M-L, SY Lam, X Dong, Y Chen, and PS Leung

In the present study, the effects of postnatal hypoxemia on the AT1 angiotensin receptor-mediated activities in the rat carotid body were studied. Angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration-dependently increased the chemoreceptor afferent activity in the isolated carotid body. Single- or pauci-fiber recording of the sinus nerve revealed that the afferent response to Ang II was enhanced in the postnatally hypoxic carotid body. To determine whether the increased sensitivity to Ang II is mediated by changes in the functional expression of Ang II receptors in the carotid body chemoreceptors, cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured by spectrofluorimetry in fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester-loaded type I cells dissociated from carotid bodies. Ang II (25-100 nM) concentration-dependently increased [Ca2+]i in the type I cells. The proportion of clusters of type I cells responsive to Ang II was higher in the postnatally hypoxic group than in the normoxic control (89 vs 66%). In addition, the peak [Ca2+]i response to Ang II was enhanced 2- to 3-fold in the postnatally hypoxic group. The [Ca2+]i response to Ang II was abolished by pretreatment with losartan (1 microM), an AT1 receptor antagonist, but not by PD-123177 (1 microM), an AT(2) antagonist. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry confirmed that an enhanced immunoreactivity for AT1 receptor was co-localized to the lobules of type I cells in the hypoxic group. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of subtypes of AT1 receptors showed an up-regulation of AT1a but a down-regulation of AT1b receptors, indicating a differential regulation of the expression of AT1 receptor subtypes by postnatal hypoxia in the carotid body. These data suggest that postnatal hypoxemia is associated with an increased sensitivity of peripheral chemoreceptors in response to Ang II and an up-regulation of AT1a receptor-mediated [Ca2+]i activity of the chemoreceptors. This modulation may be important for adaptation of carotid body functions in the hypoxic ventilatory response and in electrolyte and water homeostasis during perinatal and postnatal hypoxia.

Free access

Jay H Lo, Pinwen Peter Chiou, C M Lin, and Thomas T Chen

CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are transcription factors consisting of six isoforms and play diverse physiological roles in vertebrates. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), in addition to the reported C/EBPβ1, we have isolated cDNA of four other isoforms, C/EBPα, C/EBPβ2, C/EBPδ1, C/EBPδ2, from the liver. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of rainbow trout C/EBPs with those of other vertebrates revealed that C/EBP isoforms are highly conserved. The profiles of tissue-specific expression of individual C/EBP isoform mRNA, determined by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR showed distinct patterns. Furthermore, injection of bovine GH into yearling rainbow trout resulted in a significant increase of mRNA levels of C/EBPβ1, C/EBPβ2, and C/EBPδ2 but not C/EBPα and C/EBPδ1 in the liver. GH-dependent increase of mRNA levels of C/EBPβ1, C/EBPβ2, C/EBPδ2, and IGF-II were also confirmed by treating rainbow trout hepatoma cells expressing a goldfish GH receptor with bGH. Together with our previous findings, the results presented in this paper strengthen our previous hypothesis that GH may regulate the expression of the IGF-II gene via mediating the expression of C/EBPβ1, C/EBPβ2, and C/EBPδ2 mRNA.